Good Spider Silk Article Review Example

Type of paper: Article Review

Topic: Silk, Spider, Protein, Draw, Solution, Fiber, Water, Stress

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2021/01/02

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Question 1 A spider silk refers to a protein fiber spun. Spiders use the silk to make webs. Spider silks are like biopolymers because they are protein based. These are thread and filaments secreted by epithelial cells. The liquid crystalline formed spider silk has mechanical properties. It is achieved by processing fibers and crystallizing artificial protein constituents and accelerating the process using auxiliary compounds. These auxiliary compounds include certain temperatures and various solutions such as water and also solutions of the main compound the dope solution of proteins. It is subsequently discussed in the works belowQuestion 2 Production of spider silk by a recombinant solution is justified by modest sharing of protein constituents and coagulation conditions, the proteins need to be coagulated because the proteins have high masses like biopolymers, highly concentrated silk protein above20% and ensuring the draw is spanned before commencing of the process to ensure toughness of the silk which includes its mechanical properties. The degree of spinning later determines to a greater length the tenacity and toughness of the spider silk .the number of draws of the spider silk in this recombinant method counts on the final toughness of the spider silk. A double draw from the dope solution of more than 20% protein concentration is more reliable in this recombinant method compared to a single draw. A single draw from the drug solution results in less toughness of the spider silk. This toughness of the spider silk can enable one determine whether it was a single draw or a double draw, not only can one determine the draws but also the type of method whether it is the recombinant or not The manner in which the spider silk respond results in the stress-strain curve is a justification for this recombinant method (Vollrath & Knight, 2001).Question 3 It is necessary to produce spider silk using the recombinant method due to the benefits it comes with this technique is adaptable for the production of spider silk. The recombinant requires an ambient temperature which is the air temperature of any given environment to where equipment’s for this process are stored .Maintenance of this temperature is crucial it not only ensures a long serving time of computers and equipment’s, but it also ensures low energy expenditure reducing cost which is achieved using shear sensitive silk crystalline secretion. The high protein concentration requires low speeds of spinning hence making the spider silk achieve the mechanical properties of spider silk such as tenacity and toughness. The toughness of spider silk is determined by the pressure which is supposed to be maintained low; the solvent used which is water and ambient temperature. Its toughness is not exceptional to the current technology used; this includes the petrochemicals which are necessary for the polymer or biopolymer. The recombinant method involves silk gene design and cloning of the proteins used as building materials. It is very necessary to use this method because this technique is adaptable to the production of any protein including the fibrous ones, this technique ensures the exact of the reproduction in the sequences whether genes or amino acids. The recombinant method routinely prefers the fibers which have a micrometer size, it spins these fibers from several recombinant silk-like proteins derived from several spider species such as the Nephila, this is always a very powerful tool which adds value to the recombinant method because it generates the building bodies which are proteins libraries with corresponding filaments of fibers and threads. Is always important for the purpose of structures and necessary investigations in protein-based biomaterials..Question 4 Spider silk has a lower relative density while compared on weight basis. It has a density which is an estimate of a sixth to that of the steel. It will later explain why you cannot compare the two in terms of mechanical properties, tenacity, endurance, toughness, and strength as well. Some scholar states that a strand which is long enough it can even circle the earth weighing less than 500 grams (Vollrath & Knight, 2001). Spider silk is light as well as strong even than steel. It makes it a better product to choose than steel because it can be used in some activities which steel cannot fit, or it can bring up complications after a given period. It has high tensile strength which makes it very tough, almost the toughness of polyaramid; polyamide is very tough enough and hence able to make radial tires and bulletproof clothing. Its toughness makes it absorb a lot of energy before breaking in which this property is enabled by the fact that it can be stretched into thin wires like structures by mechanical forces without breaking. It allows it to be useful and durable for a long period. It also brings up the reality that it has high-reliability value compared to other similar products. Spider silks are extensible. It shows that because of their ductility characteristic they can be stretched to cover an extended area than when they are usual relaxed mood which some people can even mistake it by the way they look. Approximately they can stretch five times long of the comfortable length without breaking up. Spider silks are viscoelastic. It means they are both viscous and elastic in nature when undergoing deformation. When strained they stretch and return fast to its original form a good example is honey, it flows slowly like it is coagulated .It means that the loading and unloading path are not the same as they are expected to be in a regular plastic which is typically elastic, while contraction and relaxation normal shape is not recovered. The manner in which a normal plastic is ought to behave when undergoing relaxation is not what silk fibers behave. The extreme strength and elasticity that spider silks have an explanation, this characteristics originate from the modular nature of the polymers that make them, this are the repeated building units which are proteins Spider silk has a mechanical behavior where we obtain the information about its stretching behavior, though this can be cured by water. The mechanical properties of spider silk are best explained by the shape of a response curve when the curve is stretched.Question 5 It is stated that spider silk is visco-elastic and, therefore, cannot relax as it was after being overstretched though water can cure it. The fact that Spider silk is made of proteins well combined with polymers and longer protein chains biopolymers, the proteins are made of amino acids. This information can be applied bio medically because water is a solvent, when dealing with the use of proteins on our bodies which is to synthesize energy. Amino acids are insoluble in water, and this means that they cannot dissolve hence not easily transported across the body in a solution form. Amino acids can only be transported in insoluble solvents. Just the same way different silks vary from the same spider due to chemical properties. Our diet leads to variation in the amino acids; this is a bio medically applicable in determining what our glands produce to carry out various functions in the body. The solubility of this repeated fibrous materials in water helps in microbiology technology in determining various cures (Lazaris et al, .2002).Question 6 Spider silk is tough and strong, and, therefore, many medical devices require such toughness to withstand various adverse conditions such as high temperatures in patients with fever. Many medical devices cannot be soft considering their functions. Spider silk is protein based and has outstanding mechanical properties which can stand ambient temperatures, maintaining an appropriate temperature of this kind is very crucial to ensure the machine lasts long, which is a perfect fit combined with the knowledge of gene sequence. Spider silk is light and with low-density a property which is perfect to make a device such as a thermometer.Question 7 I expect many similarities of these fibers ,looking at the production of silk by Nephila species if we consider the spinning duct with several components such as the structure which the spider extrudes its silk we can realize that it's similar to the die used in the artificial spiders spinning technology. There is a gland an ampullate one for that matter which makes the silk it is made up of a tail and a sac which is wide ,it is this tale which secretes the main part of the dope solution, These two fibers are ought to have similar structures because the dope solution in both cases is protein molecules, whereby in the artificial spinning of the fiber the solution is above 20% concentration of proteins .The final structures are ought to be similar this is because within the ampullate duct and between the arms the spinning duct which is the dope solution is ought to be liquid crystalline with the main silk protein constituent in a coagulated state and compact formation that allows it to be processed at high protein molecules concentration which are non-essential amino acids in the body of the spider. In this case we have to test for protein content in each in order to confirm the similarity. Biuret test will be used in which copper (II) ions in the presence of peptides will make the mixture change to violet. (Lazaris et al, .2002).Question 8 Spider silk possesses mechanical properties typical of a polymer this is well argued by the experiment of stress-strain curve. The values of re-spun are well obeyed here this is so because the improved mechanical properties of the post pinning draw of RC-silk agree with values reported for respond. Spider silk possess mechanical properties this is so because additional draw resulted in more toughness and tenacity values this well explains why the mechanical properties of double draw fibers were well pronounced that for single draw Water represented the similarity by being able to cure and plasticize silk and stabilize the post pinning process. Elastic moduli are easily determined by considering loading and unloading paths after straining the silk. The ability or inability to resume original shape, some materials do not resume completely to the original shape after relaxation though water can cure it due to the mechanical properties available. The varying degree of stress-strain curve after stretching enables to know the elasticity of the module. These mechanical properties are well described by the response curve the material takes after being stretched. Stress-Strain curves of a silk may vary though this happen from several spider, and it clearly explains the mechanical properties exhibited. It occurs due varieties, chemical concentrations of the dope solution and the way it is spun. The spinning environment also controls the mechanical properties of the silk fiber thread. The analysis performed on the seven fiber fragments to determine the elastic module is based on toughness. Our focus being the stress-strain curves for test 1,2 and 6.The elastic moduli were compared on the basis of toughness, and the stress-strain curve obtained for test 2 stretched the medium compared to that of the rest two tests which is1 and six respectively. It is because of two determinants which are the mechanical properties such as the toughness and tenacity of the fiber and spinning draw. This procedure is recommendable because the mechanical properties of the fiber are a great factor. The elastic moduli can also be determined by considering the cross-sectional area of the fiber silk or the degree of dope solution of protein content.Question 9 This experiment is possible with a microscope of high magnifying length, to determine the stress-strain relationship of fibers. Filaments of silk fiber are well arranged under the magnifying lenses after being subjected to either single or double draw of either methanol or sulphuric acid which is highly concentrated. Measurement of the tenacity, length and toughness of the fiber silk filaments before and after is done to measure the stress-strain relationship of the various fibers silkQuestion 10 Uniform composition of spider silks is easy to determine compared to spider silks which are not uniform this is so because uniform composition of fiber silk has proteins as the only building units, when the composition is uniform the testing criteria will be that of testing presence of proteins despite variability of the amino acids which may be caused by diet difference. When the composition is not uniform one is ought to consider gene sequences of the building body. The composition of the spider silk can be well determined by relating by relating the threads using mechanical properties ,when the composition is not uniform we consider other properties of bone structures which are not related to the main building bodies.Question 11 It is stated that spider silk toughness is equaled that of commercial polyaramid. A polyaramid is like nylon but a special aromatic one. I agree that spider silk is tough than steel compared to the information provided by the author. Polyaramids tenacity is tough and strong enough to manufacture bullet-proof clothing and radial tires. A material enough to withstand and bounce off a bullet is of extensible strength than that of steels. It is acceptable logically because dragline silk is achieved under adverse conditions which include ambient temperature, low pressure, and water as a solvent and dope solutions for spinning. Spider dragline silk is considered to be the toughest biopolymer on Earth. It accepts after reading this article due to the extraordinary combination of strength and elasticity and considering the fact learned that silk are biocompatible, and this protein based thing does not rate hence biodegradable(Lazaris et al, .2002).

References

Vollrath, F., & Knight, D. P. (January 01, 2001). Liquid crystalline spinning of spider silk. Nature, 410, 6828, 541-8.
Lazaris, A., Arcidiacono, S., Huang, Y., Zhou, J. F., Duguay, F., Chretien, N., Welsh, E. A., Karatzas, C. N. (January 01, 2002). Spider silk fibers spun from soluble recombinant silk produced in mammalian cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295, 5554, 472-6.

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