Sample Article Review On Sports Related Concussions And Sensory Functions In Adults
Sport related concussions are injury sustained on the head as a result of injury during active participation in sports. It is seen to be rising day by day, mainly seen in children and young adults. The impact of the injury is usually acute, but a lasting impact can be seen over the sensory functions, mainly vision. More numbers of girls are found to be affected as compared to the number of boys involved in the same sport (Halstead and Walter, 2010). The risk of concussions are higher in sports involving more of physical contact, as for example, football, ice hockey, baseball, boxing and so on. Though the initial symptoms are acute and not alarming, but the long term effects are quite disturbing for the patients. The initial vertigo, nausea and blurring of vision may lead to a permanent vision impairment as a consequence of the injury later on.
In a study conducted by Moore, Broglio and Hillman they assumed that a concussion received in younger age has an effect on the vision later in life. They took a sample population of 38 individuals, out of which 19 had a positive history of concussion and other 19 were taken as the control group, the individuals belonged to the age group of 20-29 years, consisting of both men and women. The concussed individuals were those who had a history of head injury before 18 years of age and were free from any consequences or effects of the concussion at the time of the study. They were examined against any previous medical conditions related to brain, vision was tested and it was found that all the individuals either had normal or corrected visions, consent was obtained from all of them. All of them underwent a screening test; they were fitted with 64- channel Quick caps. They were then asked to go through a pattern reversal test individually. The individuals were made to undergo EEG and ERPs, the observations were then recorded accordingly. The EEGs were recorded with the electrodes placed above and below the left orbit and outer canthus of both eyes. It was found that concussions may lead to impairment of the visual responses in the affected patients. The Visual evoked potential or the VEPs were found to be highly unstable. They were also tested against response to stimuli where they were made to sit in a room and a series of stimuli were projected on a monitor in front of them. The screen used for projection was a high contrast 2 color checkerboard which reversed the spatial position of the image and maintained a fixed illumination during inversion of the same. The board was of horizontal orientation, which composed of 6 rows and 6 columns, thus making a 36 checks pattern. The results showed that there is no correlation between the duration of the injury or any other related factors, however the hypothesis, that the occurrence of concussion affects vision still holds true.
Although quite a common finding nowadays, but the sport coaches are yet not trained enough in identifying a patient of concussion. If they can diagnose a patient in a timely manner and arrange for immediate medical care then a large number of sport persons can be saved from the grave future outcomes of such injuries (McLeod, Schwartz, & Bay, 2007). Cases are registered where a player receives not one but multiple concussions, one after the other as a result of sport related injury. The symptoms may range from minor headache to loss of consciousness. Although the injuries are not too severe, thus the players are even able to return to the field the very next day, but the impact is felt later on as loss of some sensory functions (Guskiewicz, Weaver, Padua, & Garrett, 2000). The rate at which the concussions as a result of sports injury are increasing, it calls for an immediate action and thorough training of the sports coaches and trainers son that they can control the situations at the time of need. A stitch on time, can actually save nine! The impact can be reduced and the patient can be saved from life threatening damages which he may have to suffer otherwise, if left untreated. Medical interventions should be carried out to determine the presence of any deep seated injury in cases where the patients present with an apparently shallow and superficial injury. Though rare, but a severe concussion injury can bear as poor consequences as retinal detachment which will be a lifetime suffering for the patient and his near ones. Proper and immediate care of the injury will minimize all such risks and other related fatal outcomes. The occurrence is only increasing day by day; as a result more attention is required to be given to the problem. Properly trained sports coaches and trainers can help greatly in reducing the happenings and combating the severity of the problem. Training on assessment and immediate care of the patient has to be incorporated for proper management of such patients.
Guskiewicz, K. M., Weaver, N. L., Padua, D. A., & Garrett, W. E. (2000). Epidemiology of Concussion in Collegiate and High School Football Players. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(5), 643-650. doi:10.1177/03635465000280050401
Halstead, M. E., & Walter, K. D. (2010). Sport-Related Concussion in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics, 126(3), 597-615. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2005
McLeod, T. C., Schwartz, C., & Bay, R. C. (2007). Sport-Related Concussion Misunderstandings Among Youth Coaches. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine,17(2), 140-142. doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e31803212ae
Moore, R., Broglio, S., & Hillman, C. (2014). Sport-Related Concussion and Sensory Function in Young Adults. Journal Of Athletic Training, 49(1), 36-41. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-49.1.02
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