Analyze Data In Research Article Essays Examples
Article Title: Surgical hand sepsis: the evidence
Authors: Professor Judith Tanner
1. How were the data analyzed in the research article?
The above article presents and discusses data that gives evidence around hand scrubbing. The data is analyzed by meta-analysis and sometimes the clinical trials are discussed. The aim of the article is to determine the effectiveness of 1. aqueous scrub vs. alcohol rubs 2.chlorhexidine gluconate vs. povidone iodine 3. duration of surgical scrub. The data is presented in the form of a detailed systematic review. Some of the findings in this paper are as follows. There was no difference between an alcohol rub and aqueous scrub in reducing surgical site infection. Hurruzo reported N-duopropenide rubs to be more effective than chlorhexidine based scrubs in reducing the number of colony forming units on surgical site of participants. Like wise, another study claims that rubbing with 45% propanol-2, 30% propanol-1 with 0.2%Sterilium rub is more effective in surgery related antisepsis than 4% chlorhexidine gluconate scrub. Of the four studies that were analyzed to know the effectiveness of alcohol rub vs. aqueous scrub, alcohol rubs were more effective in reducing surgical site infection. (Parienti et al, 2002; Herruzo et al., 2000; Pietsch, 2001; Gupta et al., 2007)
Four studies were analyzed to know the effectiveness of chlorhexidine gluconate vs. povidone iodine. The conclusion from this analysis is that chlorhexidine was more effective than povidone iodine. However these studies had the limitation that, they measured the bacteria on hands after antisepsis rather than the colony forming unit from the surgical site. (Pereira et al., 1990; Pereira et al., 1997; Herruzo et al., 2000; Furukawa et al., 2005)
Four trials were again compared to determine the effectiveness of a 2 minute antisepsis vs. 5 minutes antisepsis in reducing bacteria load on the hands. Two minutes was as effective as 5 minutes in reducing the bacterial load. (Kappstein et al., 1993; Wheelock & Lookinland, 1997)
2. Now that you have reviewed the entire article, what other studies do you think need to be done in order to bring this solution into practice?
Most studies in the review determine the effectiveness of the hand antisepsis protocol, based on colony forming unit in the hands rather than in the surgical site. We need to know if there is any significant impact of bacterial load on hand in causing surgical site infection. We also need to compare the effectiveness of surgical hand sepsis with wearing gloves, before we implement these solutions into practice. The surgeons and the surgical team must be motivated to follow surgical hand antisepsis. A defined protocol can be made available, which everyone can adhere to.
1. Furukawa, K., Tajiri, T., Sudzuki, H & Norose, Y . (2005) Are sterile water and brushes necessary for hand washing before surgery in Japan? Journal of Nippon Medical School, 72 (3): 149-154.
2. Gupta, C., Czubatyi, M., Briski, L.E. & Malani, A, K. ( 2007) .Comparison of two alcohol-based surgical scrub solutions with an iodine-based brush for presurgical antiseptic effectiveness in a community hospital. Journal of Hospital Infection, 65 (1) :65-71.
3. Hemjzo Cabrera R., Vizcaino Alcaide M. J & Fdez Acinero M.J. (2000). Usefulness of an alcoholic solution of N-Duopropenide for the surgical antisepsis of the hands compared with hand washing with iodine povidone and chlorhexidine. Journal of Surgical Research, 94 :6-12.
4. Kappstein, I., Schulgen, G., Waninger, J & Dascher, F (1993).Microbiological and economic studies of abbreviated procedures for surgical hand disinfection Der Chirurg, 64 (5):400-405.
5. Parienti JJ., Thibon P., Heller R., Le Roux Y., Theobald P., Bensadoun H., Bouvet, A., Lemarchand, F & Le Coutour, X .(2002). Hand rubbing with an aqueous alcoholic solution versus traditional surgical hand scrubbing and 30-day surgical site infection rates .Journal of American Medical Association, 288(6): 722-727.
6. Pereira, U., Lee, G.M & Wade, K.J. (1990). The effect of surgical hand washing routines on the microbial counts of operating room nurses. American Journal of Infection Control, 18 (6):354-364.
7. Pereira, L.J., Lee, G.U &Wade K.J (1997). An evaluation of five protocols for surgical hand washing in relation to skin condition and microbial counts. Journal of Hospital Infection, 36 (1): 49-65.
8. Pietsch, H. (2001). Hand antiseptics: rubs versus scrubs, alcoholic solutions versus alcoholic gels. Journal of Hospital Infection, 48 (Supplement A):S33-S36.
9. Tanner,J. (2009). Surgical hand antisepsis: the evidence. Clinical Feature, 18(8): ISSN1467-1026.
10. Wheelock, S.M & Lookinland, S. (1997).Effect of surgical hand scrub time on subsequent bacterial growth. AORN Journal, 65 (6): 1087-1098