Basis And Purpose Of Development Theories And Their Evolving Place In The Classroom Essays Examples
Type of paper: Essay
Topic: Theory, Education, Classroom, Development, Management, Children, Psychology, Sociology
What someone sees in a classroom is the outcome one or several of various educational approaches, which are based upon the psychology and sociological development theories. One of the reasons that educational practices have changed over time is that better understandings of different development theories in child development fields, the aim of this report is to explain the propose of such development programs, the development theories off which they hinge, educational planning methods and processes, classroom management skills, group guidance approaches, conflict mediation and parent education strategies.
One of the most groundbreaking development theories that then fed educational theory was Piaget’s classical developmental theory. Even he predicted that his theory would play importantly into educational psychology and other derivative theories (Case, pg, 219, 1993). Crucial to the derivative educational theories was the realization that children at different ages had a different set of growing cognitive tools at their disposal. Expecting a child who has not yet gained a cognitive understand to understand a rule system under which the yet-to-be-acquired skill would be needed, would be futile. After this development it was the cognitive revolution that lead to the “Birth of a new learning theory” in which the technology and educational theory had caught up with the theory pioneered with Piaget’s breakthroughs in research. (Case, pg, 224, 1993). In the 90s some of this research was revised as a new proposal that saw children’s skills as building off each other and so relating concepts to children in the structures of understandings, which they possessed.
But “theories of development are much more specific than paradigms or worldviews” (Goldman, pg 1, 2014). But since Piaget there has been the consistency across educational theories and practices in that they all acknowledge change over time in the development in a child. But no single theory has had a pervading influence over educational theories overtime, and the nature of the field of educational, development, and classroom theory is an evolving nature due to it’s ties with sociological and psychological theory. Skinner took a behaviorist approach, Freud relied on psychoanalytical theory, Piaget introduced a constructionist theory, Vygotsky a socio-historical approach, Bronfenbrenner looked at ecological systems and there are theories that draw from some or all of them (Goldman, pg 1, 2014). This all led to a variety of constructionist theories, all of which in the 21st century have included a Piaget based framework.
Sociology and psychology give the reasons for why so much of this is important for educational reasons. Development passes through many critical stages in which, so to speak, there is no point of return, so it is in the best interest of an educational systems to not just understand the information they want to teach, but the best methods to convey that information. Sociology and psychology also informs a variety of classroom practices that go into not just teaching methods but classroom management strategies.
Classroom management “incorporates the essential features of classroom organization, management, and discipline, provides information to help elementary school teachers establish effective classroom management systems” (Evertson, Carolyn M.; And Others, pg.,1994). Without effective classroom management skills, there are risk to both teachers and children in the schools where they are education.
In the third edition of “Classroom Management for Elementary Teachers” there are 9 areas that teachers must assess in order to effectively manage their classrooms. Their guide draws of 50 different resources; many psychology and sociology frameworks are listed.
Though strategies vary, many focus on effective conflict resolution. Conflicts represent particularly high-intensity situations for an instructor, whose goal it should be to always keep the peace and remain in charge. Losing control of a classroom undermines not only the authority structure, but could even result in physical violence, one of the reasons that it is a core feature of any classroom management guide. Since losing control of a classroom is not an option, one guide advocates a “win/win” approach. The abbreviated Win/Win Guidelines “1 )Cool off. 2) "I message" 3) Say back4) Take responsibility 5) Brainstorm solutions 6) Affirm, forgive, or thank.”
One exercise from “Learning Peace” a resource for educators, using this six-step process of the accompanying educational resource for the authors of the books “The Peaceful classroom in Action.” They go into great detail of all of these steps, including a strategy for when to turn discipline issues into a learning opportunity, “Make sure the children have cooled off enough. If either party is still too angry to sincerely work out the problem, try mediating later, or the following day” (Drew, n.p., 2002).
Parent engagement is necessary because everything that an educator can pass risk being undermined if there is a home life that is hostel to these methods, or living situations that encourage a contrary one. That is why most educational strategies, methods, and processes are constructionist theories that understand the need for an integral interworking of classroom management skills, group guidance approaches, conflict mediation and parent education strategies. But all these areas are subject to change and evolution as new theories emerge from the fields of sociology and psychology.
Child Development Theories (continued). (n.d.). Retrieved February 16, 2015, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/child-development-changing-theories/?page=2
Evertson, Carolyn M.; And Others Classroom Management for Elementary Teachers. Third Edition. (1994) Allyn & Bacon, A Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.,
The Peaceful Classroom in Action - How and When to Mediate. (n.d.). Retrieved February 16, 2015, from http://www.learningpeace.com/pages/PC_Mediate.htm