Examine World Poverty Essays Examples
Poverty is a fundamental global challenge facing the world community. It has a detrimental impact on the economy, social relations, politics, and culture; it directly affects the core characteristics of any human life as health and education. In turn, poverty is a product of several factors acting at the global level. The fact that today beggary, poverty and backwardness are especially true of the Third World does not make the problem less relevant in relation to the highly developed countries. The inability of most poor countries get out of poverty on their own made poverty problem universal, turning it into one of the weak points of the world agenda. It is hard to realize that 80% of the world’s population lives on less than $10 a day. Therefore, the world’s population is 7 billion people, which means that 5.6 billion of them live on less than $10 a day.
The United Nations gives high priority to the fight against poverty. UNESCO considers it its duty to explain people the fact that freedom from poverty is a basic human right. Attacking poverty program of the World Bank Institute aims to create the potential in the countries, necessary to develop and implement effective strategies to reduce poverty.
Poverty has many faces, and it varies keeping pace and planetary. In various countries and in diverse chronological stages the human needs are examined contrarily. In the least developed states, the problem of poverty occurs as a deficiency or absence of vital resources to guarantee natural existence, and essential human privileges (absolute poverty). However, important imperceptible features of poverty in such states still recede into the background. In rich countries it is a matter of disproportion in income distribution, severe unconventionalities from dominant in state living standards, strict limitations in the decision of life route (relative poverty).
The objectives in the fight against poverty, disease and environmental protection contained in the Millennium Declaration of the UN include double decrease in population with income less than $1 per day, compulsory provision of Preparatory School for children, stop the spread of AIDS, significant improvement of life for at least 100 million habitants of rookery, contribution of equality between males and females, development of strong partnerships with the private sector and civil society organizations, as well as the encouragement of the pharmaceutical industry to ensure wider dissemination of essential drugs and their better accessibility to all, who need them in developing countries (United Nations).
Attacking poverty program of the World Bank Institute has state strategy developed with the participation of receipts, different macroeconomic, structural and social programs and policy measures are described, which are conducted in the country for the motivation of economic growth and decrease in poverty as well as the proper requirements for external funding were defined. The final objective is the development and effective implementation of strategies of poverty reduction within the complex of teaching events (World Bank Institute).
Both Attacking poverty program and the Millennium Declaration were created in early 2000. They are aimed at the reduction of poverty at global level. In the context of sharply enlarged rivalry in the international market for products and services an inventive course set on the progress and optimal practice of social prospective appears to be precarious to the successful socio-economic development. Solving the problem of poverty and hunger is impossible without breakthroughs in the field of high technology, the use of new energy sources and materials. Innovations in biotechnology and water treatment systems, the development and diversification of agriculture to help solve the problem of lack of food, and medical advances allow fighting diseases that have become a scourge for poor countries, and the threat of pandemics in rich countries.
There are also models of social protection applied in different countries:
1. Continental (Bismarck) model (Germany, the Netherlands, Australia, Switzerland, France) provides the relationship between the level of social protection and the duration of employment. It is based on a powerful compulsory social security services directed to various forms of insurance: health, pension and unemployment insurance (Popova and Kozhevnikova).
2. The liberal model of social protection (UK, Ireland, USA, Japan): social security system is based on the principles of universality (covers all members of society in need of financial support) and uniformity of social services (equal to the size of pensions and benefits, the uniformity of conditions of payment).
3. South European (rudimentary) social protection model (Italy, Spain, Greece, Portugal) is characterized by a relatively low level of social security and social protection – the prerogative of the family and relatives. In contrast to the previously submitted, the model can be interpreted rather as an evolving, therefore, there is no clear organization. A typical feature of the model is rudimentary and asymmetric structure of social spending.
4. Social Democratic (Scandinavian) model (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway) has a wide coverage of various social risks and life situations that require public support. Social services are guaranteed to all residents of the country and are due to the employment and payment of premiums. The level of social protection that reduces poverty in these countries to the bottom degree globally is high. Social policy depends on the statement that poverty is a disease of society, and people become poor in the market process, without having to adapt to a changing labor market.
The problem of poverty in a given country and the entire environment runs beyond the purely economic issues. It is an essential component of the complex fundamental challenges faced by mankind occurred in the situation of globalization. It’s about preserving the environment, preventing the threat of nuclear war, the determination of cultural and religious disputes, increasing the excellence of life and progress of social creativity. The international community can find appropriate responses to these challenges only to abandon the globalization without social justice in favor of globalization with a human face, placing an increasingly important role in the global development of its social, ethical and cultural element, stood on the values of collaboration and joint support for the wealth-being of all mankind.
Based on the analysis of foreign policies to combat poverty and social protection systems, it should be resolved that there is no simple single management plan for poverty. However, if some countries can make significant progress in reducing the many manifestations of poverty, then the same can be achieved by other countries. However, it should be understood that each country has its own characteristics and to blindly copy the experience of social protection in developed countries is unacceptable. It updates and necessitates the analysis of models of social protection of foreign countries and the transition to an integrated policy aimed at reducing poverty in modern countries.
“Attacking poverty program”. World Bank Institute. Web.
“Millennium Development Goals and beyond 2015”. United Nations. 2013. Web.
“POVERTY: a growing problem within our world”. Iinet. Web.
Popova, Yelena and Kozhevnikova, Marina. “Interdependence of HDI and Budget Redistribution within the Scandinavian and Continental Social Models”. Economics and Management. 2013: 562-575. Print.
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