Sample Research Paper On The Ability To Taste Phenylthiocarbamide (Ptc) In Relation To A Common Bitter Substance: Coffee (Cuban Coffee And American Coffee)

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Genetics, Taste, Coffee, Caffeine, Gene, Humans, Population, Human

Pages: 2

Words: 550

Published: 2020/12/22

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Abstract

Different alleles of gene for sensing bitterness have been found. This gene is evolutionary different in chimpanzees and humans and within human populations. Different alleles of the same gene might sense different type so bitter compounds. Here we investigate whether people who have a susceptibility to sense caffeine can also sense the novel compound for bitterness phenylthiocarbamide (PTC).
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There are five basic tastes in humans sweet, sour, salty, bitterness and umami. The taste is only observed on the taste buds of the tongue which detects interactions of different molecules or ions. The sensation of sweetness, bitterness and umami are triggered by G-protein coupled receptors whereas the sour and salty are from induction of hydrogen or alkali metal entering the taste bud cells (Silverthorn, 2009).
Bitterness is peculiarly interesting in that this receptor is largely to warn humans of dangerous toxins in plants and microorganisms. The genes in humans encoding for the GPCR T2R have been found to be TAS2R. However, many humans have pseudogenes in addition to their functional T2R genes. Interestingly, the number of chemicals that can perceive bitter is much more than the number of T2R genes present so each gene many respond to more than one bitter ligand. It has been suggested that different T2R alleles may have different profiles of ligand specificity. Thus, the repertoire of bitter taste receptors may be not limited by the number of the TAS2R genes but instead may involve as many receptors as there are TAS2R alleles. Specifically one gene called TAS2R38 binds to PTC (phenylthiocarbamide) and was discovered in 2003 (Bufe, 2005; Hussain, 2013). There are two commons forms of this gene; tasting allele (T) and non-tasting allele (t). In order to taste PTC, a person only needs one T dominant allele, so people with (Tt) and (TT) are tasters, and people with (tt) are non-tasters. The intensity of how PTC is tasted is due to shape of the receptor protein coded by each allele (Hussain, 2013). The shape of the receptor determines how well PTC binds, and hence produces a stronger bitter taste.
The PTC gene is found in different populations humans and is likely due to differing diets. Humans likely evolved taste differently than chimpanzees as many humans have the ability to taste PTC whereas most chimpanzees do not (Bufe, 2005). These populations were tested using PTC originally to distinguish the genetics of the TAS2R alleles. It was found in several studies that there are distinct differences in different populations e.g. caucasians the frequency of non-tasters is estimated to be approximately 28% overall (Kim, 2004) whereas Japanese may have only approximately 10% non-tasters (Sato, 1997).
However, to determine whether a person is able to test one or another bitter tastes genes would be of potential interest. This could be determined by comparing the tasters to non-tasters of PTC to another bitter compound, caffeine, which is present in different concentrations depending on the preparation methods viz. regular American drip coffee (7 oz 207 ml, 115-175 mg caffeine) and Cuban type espresso (1.5-2 oz, 100 mg ) (Bunker, 1979). Recently, TAS2R43 gene was found to be responsible for sensing bitterness in coffee (Piratsue, 2014). Caffeine and other bitter flavorants may compete with the same bitter receptors as PTC and it has been suggested that the PTC may correlates with behaviors that have important health implications (Floriano, 2006). This competition between bitter flavorants and PTC shown in previous reports (Hall, 1975; Leach, 1986, & Zamora, 1996) have looked into testing the bitter taste of coffee in humans and comparing to other bitter tastes like quinine and PTC.
We aim to look further into understanding the different types of bitterness genes by testing different compounds. In order to determine the sensitivity of bitterness when tasting caffeine, an experiment will be conducted among undergraduate genetics lab students at University (FIU). The relationship between PTC and caffeine will be determined in this experiment. We conducted the study using ## participants in a randomized trial. It can be hypothesized that it a dominant (Tt) student is able to taste caffeine found in coffee then they will have a high chance of being able to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC).

References

Bachmanov, A., P Bosak, N., Lin, C., Matsumoto, I., Ohmoto, M., R Reed, D., & M Nelson, T. (2014). Genetics of taste receptors. Current pharmaceutical design, 20(16), 2669-2683.
Bufe, B., Breslin, P. A., Kuhn, C., Reed, D. R., Tharp, C. D., Slack, J. P., & Meyerhof, W. (2005). The molecular basis of individual differences in phenylthiocarbamide and propylthiouracil bitterness perception. Current Biology, 15(4), 322-327.
Bunker, M. L., & McWilliams, M. (1979). Caffeine content of common beverages. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 74(1), 28-32.
Floriano, W. B., Hall, S., Vaidehi, N., Kim, U., Drayna, D., & Goddard III, W. A. (2006). Modeling the human PTC bitter-taste receptor interactions with bitter tastants. Journal of molecular modeling, 12(6), 931-941.
Hall, M. J., Bartoshuk, L. M., Cain, W. S., & Stevens, J. C. (1975). PTC taste blindness and the taste of caffeine.
Hussain, R., Shah, A., & Afzal, M. (2013). Distribution of sensory taste thresholds for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste ability in North Indian Muslim populations. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, 14(4), 367-373.
Leach, E. J., & Noble, A. C. (1986). Comparison of bitterness of caffeine and quinine by a time–intensity procedure. Chemical senses, 11(3), 339-345.
Kim, U. K., & Drayna, D. (2005). Genetics of individual differences in bitter taste perception: lessons from the PTC gene. Clinical genetics, 67(4), 275-280.
Prasad Pydi, S., Upadhyaya, J., Singh, N., Pal Bhullar, R., & Chelikani, P. (2012). Recent advances in structure and function studies on human bitter taste receptors. Current Protein and Peptide Science, 13(6), 501-508.
Pirastu, N., Kooyman, M., Traglia, M., Robino, A., Willems, S. M., Pistis, G., & Gasparini, P. (2014). Association analysis of bitter receptor genes in five isolated populations identifies a significant correlation between TAS2R43 variants and coffee liking. PloS one, 9(3), e92065.
Sato, T., Okada, Y., Miyamoto, T., & Fujiyama, R. (1997). Distribution of non-tasters for phenylthiocarbamide and high sensitivity to quinine hydrochloride of the non-tasters in Japanese. Chemical senses, 22(5), 547-551.
Silverthorn D.U., (2009) Human Physiology: An integrated approach 5th Edition , Chapter-10, Page-354
Zamora, M. C., & Calvino, A. M. (1996). A comparison of methodology applied to the selection of a panel for sensory evaluation of instant coffee. Journal of sensory studies, 11(3), 211-226.

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WePapers. (2020, December, 22) Sample Research Paper On The Ability To Taste Phenylthiocarbamide (Ptc) In Relation To A Common Bitter Substance: Coffee (Cuban Coffee And American Coffee). Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/sample-research-paper-on-the-ability-to-taste-phenylthiocarbamide-ptc-in-relation-to-a-common-bitter-substance-coffee-cuban-coffee-and-american-coffee/
"Sample Research Paper On The Ability To Taste Phenylthiocarbamide (Ptc) In Relation To A Common Bitter Substance: Coffee (Cuban Coffee And American Coffee)." WePapers, 22 Dec. 2020, https://www.wepapers.com/samples/sample-research-paper-on-the-ability-to-taste-phenylthiocarbamide-ptc-in-relation-to-a-common-bitter-substance-coffee-cuban-coffee-and-american-coffee/. Accessed 25 February 2021.
WePapers. 2020. Sample Research Paper On The Ability To Taste Phenylthiocarbamide (Ptc) In Relation To A Common Bitter Substance: Coffee (Cuban Coffee And American Coffee)., viewed February 25 2021, <https://www.wepapers.com/samples/sample-research-paper-on-the-ability-to-taste-phenylthiocarbamide-ptc-in-relation-to-a-common-bitter-substance-coffee-cuban-coffee-and-american-coffee/>
WePapers. Sample Research Paper On The Ability To Taste Phenylthiocarbamide (Ptc) In Relation To A Common Bitter Substance: Coffee (Cuban Coffee And American Coffee). [Internet]. December 2020. [Accessed February 25, 2021]. Available from: https://www.wepapers.com/samples/sample-research-paper-on-the-ability-to-taste-phenylthiocarbamide-ptc-in-relation-to-a-common-bitter-substance-coffee-cuban-coffee-and-american-coffee/
"Sample Research Paper On The Ability To Taste Phenylthiocarbamide (Ptc) In Relation To A Common Bitter Substance: Coffee (Cuban Coffee And American Coffee)." WePapers, Dec 22, 2020. Accessed February 25, 2021. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/sample-research-paper-on-the-ability-to-taste-phenylthiocarbamide-ptc-in-relation-to-a-common-bitter-substance-coffee-cuban-coffee-and-american-coffee/
WePapers. 2020. "Sample Research Paper On The Ability To Taste Phenylthiocarbamide (Ptc) In Relation To A Common Bitter Substance: Coffee (Cuban Coffee And American Coffee)." Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. Retrieved February 25, 2021. (https://www.wepapers.com/samples/sample-research-paper-on-the-ability-to-taste-phenylthiocarbamide-ptc-in-relation-to-a-common-bitter-substance-coffee-cuban-coffee-and-american-coffee/).
"Sample Research Paper On The Ability To Taste Phenylthiocarbamide (Ptc) In Relation To A Common Bitter Substance: Coffee (Cuban Coffee And American Coffee)," Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com, 22-Dec-2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.wepapers.com/samples/sample-research-paper-on-the-ability-to-taste-phenylthiocarbamide-ptc-in-relation-to-a-common-bitter-substance-coffee-cuban-coffee-and-american-coffee/. [Accessed: 25-Feb-2021].
Sample Research Paper On The Ability To Taste Phenylthiocarbamide (Ptc) In Relation To A Common Bitter Substance: Coffee (Cuban Coffee And American Coffee). Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/sample-research-paper-on-the-ability-to-taste-phenylthiocarbamide-ptc-in-relation-to-a-common-bitter-substance-coffee-cuban-coffee-and-american-coffee/. Published Dec 22, 2020. Accessed February 25, 2021.
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