Good Example Of Essay On Cancer Health Statistics In The United States
Cancer is a primary public health concern in the United States and in other parts of the globe. At present, cancer is the second major cause of death in America, and is likely to exceed heart diseases as the primary cause of mortality in the future. Cancer belongs to a group of diseases described by the uncontrolled growth and dispersal of abnormal cells. In the event that the dispersal of abnormal cells is unrestrained, it can lead to death. Cancer is brought about by external factors, including tobacco, unhealthy diet, and infectious organisms, and internal factors, including hormones, inherited genetic mutations, and immune conditions (White et al., 2009).
CANCER STATISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES
The most common type of cancer among women in the United States is breast cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, there are over 234,000 new cases of breast cancer expected in 2015 (Breastcancer.org 2015). About 1 in every 8 women in the United States will have invasive breast cancer during their lifetime. During the previous year, there were 232,670 new cases of breast cancer. An estimated 2360 new cases of invasive type of breast cancer were predicted to be diagnosed among men (Breastcancer.org 2015). The lifetime risk for men having breast cancer is 1 in 1000 (Breastcancer.org 2015). In 2000, the incidence of breast cancer started to decrease. There was a drop of 7% between 2002 and 2003. One stated theory behind such reduction is the reduction in the utilization of hormone replacement therapy. Such result led to the link between increased risk for breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy. An estimated 40,000 women in the United States were predicted to die in 2014 because of breast cancer (Breastcancer.org 2015). Death rates have reduced since 1989 with massive decreases among women aged 50 and below. These reductions are believed to be the result of advance treatment, earlier detection via screening, and increased knowledge and awareness about the ailment (Breastcancer.org 2015).
The most common type of cancer among men in the United States is prostate cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, there are over 220,800 new incidences of prostate cancer in 2015 and approximately 27,540 deaths from the same disease (Cancer.org 2015). In addition, about 1 every 7 men are likely to be diagnoses having prostate cancer during their lifetime. Prostate cancer occurs primarily in older men. Furthermore, about 6 out of 10 cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed among men aged 65 and up (Cancer.org 2015). Prostate cancer rarely happens among men below the age of 40. Prostate cancer is considered to be a serious disease; however, a lot of men identified with prostate cancer are not actually dying from it. As a matter of fact, over 2.9 million men in America with prostate cancer still live up to this day (Cancer.org 2015).
The lifetime possibility of being identified with an aggressive cancer is greater for men (43%) compared to women (38%) (Cancer.org 2015). The causes for improved exposure in men are not so much understood, yet to some degree possibly mirror differences in endogenous hormones, environmental exposures, as well as complex connections between these impacts. Past studies indicate that height may likewise be a factor. For many adults who are under 50 years old, the risk of cancer is greater among women (5.4%) compared to men (3.4%) due to the greater occurrence of genital, breast, and thyroid cancers in many young women (Cancer.org 2015). The presence incidence rate of cancer among people between aged of birth to 49 years old is 78.6 in men and 125.1 in women (Cancer.org 2015). The projected possibility of developing cancer is grounded on the average experience of the people and may under- or overestimates individual risk due to the differences in medical history, exposure, and genetic susceptibility. According to cancer.org, in 2015, an estimated 589,430 Americans are projected to die because of cancer or approximately 1620 people each day (Cancer.org 2015). In addition, cancer is the second leading cause of mortality rate in the United States.
The 5-year comparative survival rate for all cancers identified in 2004-2010 was 68%, this is an increased from 49% back in 1975-1977 (Siegel et al. 2015). The change in survival reflects both the prior conclusion of specific diseases and enhancements in treatment. Survival measurements differ significantly by malignancy type and stage at the time of the diagnosis. Relative survival is the rate of individuals who are alive during an assigned time period after a growth analysis (generally 5 years) isolated by the rate anticipated that the person would be alive without growth based on the expected rate of living. It does not recognize between patients who have no confirmation of tumor and the individuals who are still in treatment or who have relapsed in their treatment. While 5-year relative survival is valuable in observing progress during the early location and treatment of growth, it does not mean to the extent of individuals who are cured in light of the fact that death caused by cancer can happen past 5 years following the diagnosis (Siegel et al. 2015). Furthermore, albeit relative survival gives some sign about the normal survival experience of growth patients in a given population, it may not foresee prognosis individually and ought to be deciphered with caution. Initially, since 5-year relative survival rates for the latest time period are in light of patients who were diagnosed from 2004 to 2010, they do not mirror the latest advances in diagnosis and treatment (Siegel et al. 2015). Second, figures that impact singular survival, including treatment conventions, different sicknesses, and natural alternately behavioural contrasts in diseases or individuals, cannot be considered. Third, survival rates may be misdirecting for diseases distinguished before indications emerge if early analysis does not expand lifespan. This happens when tumor is diagnosed that would have gone undetected without screening (over diagnosis) alternately when early analysis does not modify the course of infection. At the end of the day, expanded time living after a malignancy diagnosis does not generally interpret into advancement against malignancy.
Cancer is a disease that highly affects people in the United States. Cancer affects women more than it does on men. Most women experience breast cancer while most men experience prostate cancer. However, other than cancer, it must not be ignored that there are still other diseases that tend to affect the population. The incidence of cancer death will likely reduce in the coming years because the advancement in the treatment employed at the present day.
Breastcancer.org, (2015). U.S. Breast Cancer Statistics. [online] Available at: http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/statistics [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015].
Cancer.org, (2015). Cancer Facts and Statistics 2015 | Research | American Cancer Society. [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsstatistics/cancerfactsfigures2015/index [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015].
Cancer.org, (2015). What are the key statistics about prostate cancer?. [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-key-statistics [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015].
Cdc.gov, (2015). FastStats. [online] Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/cancer.htm [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015].
Cdc.gov, (2015). Homepage of the National Center for Health Statistics. [online] Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015].
National Cancer Institute, (2015). Breast Cancer Risk in American Women. [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/breast/risk-fact-sheet [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015].
National Cancer Institute, (2015). Cancer Health Disparities. [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/disparities/cancer-health-disparities [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015].
Siegel, R., Miller, K. and Jemal, A. (2015). Cancer statistics, 2015. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 65(1), pp.5-29.
White, A., Pollack, L., Smith, J., Thompson, T., Underwood, J. and Fairley, T. (2009). Racial and ethnic differences in health status and health behavior - PubMed - NCBI. [online] Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212604 [Accessed 23 Mar. 2015].
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