Pick Any Current Research Topic Literature Review Example

Type of paper: Literature Review

Topic: Education, Study, Health, Interventions, Development, Africa, Students, Experiment

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2020/12/30


The most frightening of the global concerns has always been something that kills. Ironically, when it comes to sexual health, people set their own camps and begin to challenge each other. On one end of the spectrum, people assert their sexuality through freedom. On the other end, people attempt to intervene it. Nonetheless, the consequences of sexual freedom have begun rearing its ugly head. Premarital pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases have added to the societal burden. The developed countries have realized its economic impact. Thus, the governments have come up with various solutions to curb them (Kirby, Laris, & Rolleri, 2007).
The fight is still ongoing. What is deeply concerning is its seemingly never-ending record. An infected person, for example, would be able to infect even on areas with low STD rates through any sexual contact. The media masking this as pleasurable fulfillment is not helping either. The worst affected parts of the world are the developing nations, especially in the African continent where the government can barely contain the societal damage (Kirby, Laris, & Rolleri, 2007).

Scope of the Problem

Sub-Saharan Africa is home to two thirds of the global HIV population that is estimated to be 22.4 million out of 33.4 million. Particularly in Zambia, around one-half of the new HIV cases infect those age 15 to 19. This age bracket is supposed to be the breadwinners of the society in the near future. As such, it is important to note that the programs and services in developing countries are in dire economic situation. Due to such contracted condition, the entire condition of an infected individual is worsening even further. It would be no surprise if these statistics would soon fall under the death rates (Agha & Van Rossem, 2004; Mash & Mash, 2012).
In this regard, this study aims to reinforce solutions for the developing nations. In order to achieve this, we would look into the ways of the developed countries, specifically their interventions for those aged between 15 and 19. Certainly, they are the ones still in school. As such, the sources we would look into tapped on sexual health, the beliefs and perceptions surrounding it, and the interventions planned and done especially in educational institutions.

Previous Findings

The study of Mash and Mash (2012) has a quasi-experimental design. It paralleled control and intervention groups. It is found that the use of condom and the age of sexual introduction significantly increased. The study showed the probable HIV prevention contribution of peer education based on faith among the youth in Africa. Nonetheless, it is recommended that further evaluation of the program’s effectiveness is required before general implementation.
The study of Agha (2002) also used a quasi-experimental design in evaluating the effect of interventions conducted through social marketing programs from the year 1994 to 1998 Africa. It is found that interventions that target adolescents can be effective when it comes to changing their attitudes and behavior towards sex. This possibility lies in including various communication channels, which reach a considerable proportion of young adults. However, identifying the effective methods to address young men’s health would remain an urgent need.
Agha and Van Rossem (2004) added a longitudinal panel to its quasi-experimental design in evaluating the effects of peer intervention in the year 2000 in Zambia. It is found tht a session of school-based intervention aimed at developing normative beliefs towards a 6-months long abstinence versus condoms took longer development. However, the program succeeded in decreasing multiple partnerships.
Kirby, Laris, and Rolleri (2007) reviewed 83 studies that measure the effects of curriculum-based sex education on sexual behavior as well as the intervening factors among the youth around the world who are aged 25 and below. It is found that such programs were effective. Furthermore, replicating studies indicated that programs were still effective when others implement them in communities that allow similar settings for the activities.
Silva (2002), on the other hand, presented findings from controlled interventions in schools that were published in the US in the last 15 years. 12 of the controlled studies tackled interventions about abstinence. These were incorporated in a meta-analysis. The analysis showed little overall impact of interventions towards abstinent behavior.
Elliot, Henderson, Nixon, and Wight (2013) looked into interventions and comparison areas that match teenage pregnancy through terminations and schools through social deprivation. Findings show that the combination of sex education in school and health clinics has a narrow effect. Interventions that address upstream poor health causes such as a detrimental environment signaled a hopeful alternative.

Critique of Literature

The previous studies selected for the literature review consisted of large and small samples, which created a more accurate big picture while remaining clear on its details. This manifested in the study that covered Africa and proceeded to specific nations such as Zambia. This helps our study in further understanding the extent of the problem. The solutions provided, however, greatly differ from each other. This is because there are various factors affecting the effectiveness of programs and services. The comparison attempted here were programs in the US, which is a developed country, as opposed to the developing countries of Africa. The culture and socio-political climate would likely require different sets of programs and appropriate activities.


The kind of study that would greatly contribute to the topic is the one comparing the interventions in relation to a particular geographical area. Abstinence, for example, showed low impact in US while it had significance in Africa. Addressing the previous researches’ weakness on geographical difference would be an interesting future study. This could be done by identifying and differentiating the factors that are brought about by the geographical gap. This is important because identifying the appropriate efforts in relation to cultural and socio-political climate would optimize the efforts in solving the problem.


Agha, S. (2002). A quasi-experimental study to assess the impact of four adolescent sexual health interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Family Planning Perspectives, 28(2), 67-70, 113-118.
Agha, S., & Van Rossem, R. (2004). Impact of school-based peer sexual health intervention on normative beliefs, risk perceptions, and sexual behavior of Zambian Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2004(34), 441-452.
Elliot, L., Henderson, M., Nixon, C., & Wight, D. (2013). Has untargeted sexual health promotion for young people reached its limit? A quasi-experimental study. Journal of Epidemiol Community Health, 2013(0), 1-7. doi:10.1136/jech-2012-201034
Kirby, D. B., Laris, B. A., & Rolleri, L. A. (2007). Sex and HIV education programs: Their impact on sexual behaviors of young people throughout the world. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(2007), 206-217. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.11.143
Mash, R., & Mash, R. J. (2012). A quasi-experimental evaluation of an HIV prevention program by peer education in the Anglican church of the Western Cape, South Africa. BMJ Open.
Silva, M. (2002). The effectiveness of school-based sex education programs in the promotion of abstinent behavior: A meta-analysis. Health Education Research, 17(4), 471-481.

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