Good Example Of American Law And Policy - Essay

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Women, Workplace, United States, America, Public, Government, Employment, Economics

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2020/11/18

Economic Policy: Gender Wage Gap and the

Feminization of Poverty Policy Brief
Economic Policy: Gender Wage Gap and the
Feminization of Poverty Policy Brief

The Issue and Background: Gender Wage Gap and the Feminization of Poverty

Currently, the ratio of female/male earnings, women populated industry and occupational sectors, women’s commercial ownership, and the status of women’s poverty remain vital characteristics of their economic status in America in the 21st century. Despite statistics showing gains among American women in all these areas in preceding decades, women are the lowest wage earners, they continue lagging in owning their own businesses while they remain more likely living in poverty than males across the nation. Women in the United States live on a median income of $30,000 annually measuring only 76.2 percent compared to annual earnings of men. Among working women make up 33.2 percent hold managerial and professional locations, with women showing another 26.0 percent or a quarter of private business ownership. Of the total population of poverty level people in America 87.9 percent are women. Economic advances among American woman are also not spread equitably either. Among lower earnings, African American, Hispanic, and American Native Indian women typically lag behind with lower wages and compared to white and Asian Americans work in professional industries or in management and live in poverty than other ethnic or racial groups of women. Furthermore, measurable inequalities and other differences also exist among these larger groups (Caiazza, & Werschkull, William, & Shaw, 2002). On the other hand, in the public sector, women have better opportunities for changing the situation with better paying jobs and benefits. The variation in the status of women in the private sector versus the public sector in job opportunities continues showing differences among men and women as well. While statistics reveal gins continue proving women hold a higher incidence of holding public employment to men particularly since the late 20th century and through the 21st to date, nonetheless increased privatization and subcontracting add to the situation critically affecting their position in this field of opportunity for gaining the advantages for both African American and Hispanic women for higher wages and benefits than available in the private sector. Higher wages in the public sector for women occur because public positions because of unionization standards and in addition, no matter the skill level, women receive higher wages in employment paid by American taxpayers (Bernhardt & Dresser, 2000).
Aligned to the typical American worker male or female, the average woman seeking employment does not have a four-year college degree therefore, attaining a public job means having a good job with better salary and benefits. Therefore, the increased threat of privatization of public jobs for American women seeking employment opportunities in this sector diminishes and with it also any chance of gaining higher wage occupation without the union coverage that also assures more benefits than exist in jobs in the private occupation industry and creates a potentially devastating economic blow to American women (Bernhardt & Dresser, 2000).

Policy Need: Sustainability of Gender and Race Related Public Employment

The record establishes the likelihood of further privatization of public service sector eroding both wages and benefits of American women workers particularly among the African American and Hispanic groups as well as women with less years of formal education. Those considered “at risk” employment positions in the public sector are 40.6 percent jobs presently held by American women but the numbers remain logically misleading because the numbers of American women without a college degree with jobs at risk constitute 63.9 percent of public employment and constitute the greatest policy concern presented in this brief (Bernhardt & Dresser, 2000).

Policy Recommendations: The Case for Sustaining Female and Race Public Employment

Primary to the recommendations in the case for sustaining female public employment must consider both policies and programs that statistically will diminish both female and race demographics aligned to public employment and therefore recommends them remaining at the forefront of America’s local, state, and national efforts. Further, recent status on the American woman economic standing across the nation remains bleak with the most pronounced opportunities for better paying jobs and benefits provided in the public sector particular to African American and Hispanic women as well as all groups without four year college degrees. All levels of government must continue enforcing equal opportunity laws by resolving complaints in more timely manners and resolving in the plaintiffs’ favor (Bernhardt & Dresser, 2000). At the same time, all levels of government must look at the ramifications to the economic status of their own communities at all level with further privatization of public jobs that put not only America’s women with less opportunities for gaining employment with the measured better wages and benefits they now have in the public sector but also as discussed those “at risk” African American and Hispanic women as well as those with not possessing a 4 year college degree which makes up the larger group demographically. Clearly from a policy standpoint, the greatest concern continues focusing on addressing the continued call for contracting out as many public services as able because American women must depend on public sector jobs disproportionately. Privatizing the public sector employment opportunities for American women and particularly ascribed to non-white and less educated American women the implications for significant decline in earnings and benefits including health care and pensions looms inevitable (Bernhardt & Dresser, 2000). By no means is the public sector the only means for fixing this American “inequality: glass ceilings and the gender gap persist in the public as in the private sector.” It still remains a fact the privatizing and de-unionizing existing public sector jobs poses a detriment to a large section of America’s economic welfare of its women and ever consideration and proactive measure to halt any further activity doing so is the only answer to a pending disaster (Bernhardt & Dresser, 2000).


Bernhardt, A., & Dresser, L. (2000). Why Privatizing Government Services Would Hurt Women Workers. Retrieved from
Caiazza, A., Werschkul, M., Williams, E., & Shaw, A. (2004). The Status of Women in the States. Retrieved from

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