Sport Utility Vehicle Essay Example
Sport Utility Vehicle is a marketing term for jeeps. The main difference from classical jeeps with off-road vehicles - they are not full-fledged all-terrain vehicles. Despite the difference in design, in speech often called the "Jeep". SUV on most characteristics are similar to passenger car. Their "universality" is due to the ability to perform a variety of tasks, including not peculiar motorcars - The transport of a large number of passengers (as minivans), the transport of bulky cargo (both generalists), towing heavy trailers (both pickups), traffic on the road (as SUVs). Some SUV are not classified as passenger cars, as well as pick-up (in the US, the classification category – “light truck”) and are based on platforms pickups. At the same time, the majority of SUV has a bearing body - in contrast to conventional SUVs having frame. Models with a monocoque body on the passenger platform often referred to as crossover and not an SUV.
The name "sport utility" due to the fact that these cars are sold initially as a means for transporting sports equipment (bikes, kayaks, skis, etc.) on leaving the countryside.
In the late 1960s - early 1970s, the term «Sport-Utility» in the US and applied to other types of bodies, uniting sportiness with practicality, for example, two-door (on the European classification winged), hatchback or station wagon. Subsequently, he was fixed solely for SUVs.
Before the start of World War II in the armies of the world were a few cars with the wheel formula 4 × 4, namely: American "Marmon-Herrington" four-wheel drive, Japanese "Kurogane" (1935), the German "average off-road" car "Horch-91 "(1937), and the Soviet GAZ-61 on the basis of “Emka" (1938). All these machines are produced in small batches and were, in fact, passenger command vehicle.
The first mass-army-wheel drive car SUV with all-wheel suspension dependent and simplified open body with cut-outs instead of doors (runabout) was established in the United States after the Second World War firms American Bantam, Willys-Overland and Ford Motor to tender US Army. Machines produced by Ford were named GPV (General Purpose Vehicle), that is, "general purpose vehicles". On the first letter ("Gee-Pee") soldiers dubbed their jeeps. There is another version, according to which, due to the nickname Jeep army slang, according to which means "workaholic", "hard worker" and dates back to pre-war sailor Popeye cartoons. It is worth noting that in the Soviet Union during the war, all cars American cars of the type called "Jeep" (regardless of whom were actually produced: Willys or Ford), and after the war for this type of car stuck in a convenient pronunciation and spelling of the word jeep and the term "SUV" (option "coupe") was coined and introduced into use in the early '90s a number of popular automotive publications, not to create problems with the corporation "Chrysler", which owns the trademark Jeep.
In the USSR in 1941-1945 limited series produced the world's first all-wheel drive sedan GAZ-61-73 with a comfortable closed body of "Emka", and since the summer of 1941 - the first Soviet SUV GAZ-64, known as front-line soldiers "willow-Jeep" for similarity to the Willys MA Model 1941, comes in the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War. During the years of World War II, SUVs have become one of the most popular military vehicles in the armies of the Allies, and the general circulation of their output reached 620 thousand units.
After the war, the conversion to version SUV received a brand Jeep CJ2A (index by CJ Civilian Jeep - civilian jeep) around the world have shown interest in the security forces, including military, police, firefighters, foresters, as well as the civil sector in the face of the farmers, geologists, doctors, hunters, hikers and others. In some countries, began production of its own models, imitations, such as English Land Rover sample 1948. One of the distinguishing features of the car was material: in 1947, the release of fighters and bombers dropped sharply, the warehouses have accumulated a huge amount of aluminum, which cost less steel. This aluminum, distinguished corrosion resistance, and became the first material for cars Land Rover. Thus, the car from the very first day of its existence has become associated with stamina and strength. Gradually SUV design has become more mature. For example, in the United States since 1947 on the basis of Jeep CJ3 started production of all-metal three-door Jeep wagon 463 and 3/4-ton pickup truck Jeep Truck. At the turn of 50-60-ies in the United States appeared comfortable wagon-wheel drive versions (station wagon) with the frame of the chassis pickups, for example, Chevrolet Suburban 1958 Jeep Wagoneer 1962. In the Soviet Union and Western Europe in the late 1950s was the fashion to create a four-wheel all terrain models based on ordinary passenger sedans and station wagons with reinforced monocoque: GAZ-M72, MZMA-410 and -411 "Moskvich”, Citroen 2CV Sahara (by the way, twin-engine), Renault Nomad and so on.. In the late 1960s in the United States has its first "sport utility vehicle” (SUV) - Chevrolet Blazer 1969 differed slightly more compact compared to the Suburban station wagon and a removable plastic roof.
The first European comfortable frame SUV Range Rover with permanent all-wheel drive, dubbed "the farmer in evening dress" for its prestige and patency was presented by Land Rover in 1970. In 1977 the Soviet Union launched the first mass-produced the world's compact SUV with a monocoque body and permanent all-wheel drive VAZ-2121 "Niva". This revolutionary low-cost, economical and comfortable model has become very popular all over the world and actually caused the appearance of a new class of compact SUV in Japan and the United States. Since the mid-1980s to mid-2000s the North American market share of cars such as SUV, classified in the US as Light Truck has steadily increased, but in recent years they displace more cost-effective and safe crossovers. Currently the world market, only a few known auto brands do not offer the type of SUV cars.
SUV segment created a furor in the auto world, which allowed BMW to move forward significantly with the model X5 in military style - SUV station wagon based on the developed by Magna-wheel drive and chassis, as well as technical stuffing 7th and 5th series. BMW sold more than 580,000 copies of this model, which, despite the "chunky appearance" looked noticeably shorter Turing model 5-Series. The second "circulation" followed in 2006. The recipe for success X5, armed with a new model HZ, BMW has transferred the entire segment that actually opened model Toyota RAV4. How SUV HZ represented the third series, so XI produced in 2009 became a symbol of the 1 Series model range BMW class golf. Absence of analogues inspired BMW to develop X6. Such a massive combination of SUV and coupe there has never been one automaker.
Cars SUV created by traditional means of transport medium, using the carrier body structure, such as a light truck. These vehicles are equipped with engines, often using the same powertrains with trucks, while some vehicles such as SUV equipped with diesel engines.
Pros of SUV: high seating, high ceilings, large ground clearance, all-wheel drive, have the capacity of an SUV. Now automobile manufacturers are seeking to further reduce wind drag and improve fuel efficiency of cars.
In the 1990s - early 2000s SUV became popular in the markets of USA, Canada and Australia - the reason for this is many factors, and there was a tendency to insanity on SUV. Was carried out advertising campaign Esuvee (pronounced as “suv”), whose aim was to promote safe driving SUV. The images of these cars in advertising were presented as powerful and dangerous animals. Special emphasis was placed on the need for careful driving, so that the vehicle with a high center of gravity is not overturned. Automakers class "luxury" has began to produce SUV only in the 2000s, when in the market appeared Cadillac Escalade, Lincoln Navigator, BMW X5, Mercedes-Benz M-Class, Porsche Cayenne, Audi Q7 and others. Previously it was thought that this class of cars is not compatible with the status of de luxe brand. However, some premium SUV models produced before (e.g. Range Rover), but this was an exception.
In the last decade of Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV) were categories of machines with the highest rate of growth in demand. In 1995, US sales of SUVs accounted for 1.75 million. In 2000, annual sales of 45 brands SUV have exceeded 2.7 million, including the sale of 1.6 million American models and 600 thousand Japan models. The cost of the basic versions of most of them was between 18 and 34 thousand dollars. However, formed at the end of last year, the surplus of cars on dealer floors and falling demand for a number of obsolete models, such as Jeep Cherokee, in 2001 can lead to a fall in the share of American SUVs on the market in North America. In 1999-2000 in North America has growing the sales of German models. Gradually, the townspeople began to buy four-wheel drive cars for transportation of small loads, towing mobile cottages, boats and transport boats, relaxing on the sandy beaches of the ocean. But, buying fancy SUVs, many are poorly their shortcomings.
- Due to the higher center of gravity and a short wheelbase, small and medium-sized SUVs during sharp turns at high speeds and mismanagement often overturned;
- With a loaded cargo compartment from the driver SUV hampered rear view and parking;
- An upstream headlight light reflected from the car in front of mirrors and interferes with the driver;
- SUV has significant fuel consumption;
- High machine may not correspond to the dimensions of some garages.
Bradsher, Keith. High and Mighty: The Dangerous Rise of the SUV. New York: Public Affairs, 2003. Print.
Fuhs, Allen E. Hybrid Vehicles and the Future of Personal Transportation. Boca Raton: CRC, 2009. Print.
Hanson, Jonathan, and Roseann Beggy Hanson. Backroad Adventuring in Your Sport Utility Vehicle. Camden, Me.: McGraw-Hill, 1999. Print.
Ludel, Moses. Toyota Truck & Land Cruiser Owner's Bible: A Hands-on Guide to Getting the Most from Your Toyota Truck. Cambridge, MA, USA: Robert Bentley, 1995. Print.
Zappe, Eric. Jeep Cherokee Performance Upgrades 1984-2001. Print.
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