Effectiveness Of Anti-Drinking Slogans On Persuasion Essays Examples

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Audience, Public Relations, People, Alcohol, Alcoholism, Driving, Fear, Message

Pages: 9

Words: 2475

Published: 2020/11/28

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Introduction

Framing is a way in which messages are presented while making an advertisement. It is important to understand the way the message has been put across in order to ensure that there is maximum impact of the advert to the issue that is being addressed in the advert. This paper will focus on the role of different framing perspectives when advertising and the theories that are associated with the framing perspective that has been undertaken.

Study 1: Positive framing vs. Negative framing

Positive and negative framing come as a result of the negative messages that might be obtained from the issues that are at hand. Framing of messages have the sole intention of letting the audience concentrate on an issue and leave out another issue unattended. Framing is one of the most effective strategies that is useful while undertaking message design because it gives the designer the chance to reach to the audience. It enables the designer to understand the people that the message is to reach. Framing is more accountable and brings more governance when bringing out the messages that are addressed to the public. One example of positive framing in advertising could the effects of corruption. For the positive framing, the designer can design an advert where they will show the public the benefits that are associated with fighting corruption.
One of the examples of negative and positive frames is that of loss and gains frames. When one issue is presented to the public while focusing on the good things that will happen when something is done, it is more of the positive issues that will be gained. One example is a community which will boycott the stores which have hired protection services from gangs. In the end, there will be no gangs because of the lack of sustenance and there will be more security in the society. It is a gain frame that is used in this regard and there will be more benefits that will be used in the end result. It is one of the strategies that has been seen to be effective in different areas. In the normal circumstances, gain frames is geared at ensuring that the audience will have good feelings and that their hopes will increase in the long run. In this aspect, people will feel good and will get the motivation to act good so that they are able to gain some good things. On the other hand, a loss frame is geared at letting the audience of the disastrous effects that can occur if there is nothing that is done to prevent some bad things from happening. In the example that was given about organized crime, the message that can be designed in negative framing can be a family which mourns from the loss of loved ones from gangs that have been rampant in the society. The aim of the loss frames is that there is a need to take action and that there is some bad feelings about a situation. It gives the audience the urgency and the need to act on an issue that is being shown in the adverts.

NO ONE WOULD LIKE TO SEE YOU BLACK OR DEAD, SO WHY NOT LET A SOBER FRIEND DRIVE

This slogan explains that one may not be in his/her senses when under the influence of alcohol. As a result, he/she is more likely to cause accidents on the roads leading to lose of lives. The fear threat of death may make an individual be scared of driving under the influence of alcohol. One would let a sober friend drive on his/ her behalf instead. Many anti-alcohol slogans have been used to control consumption of alcohol. The main purpose of the anti-alcohol slogan is to increase the awareness of the bad things that are associated with alcohol. The other purpose is to promote the legitimacy of policies that are put in place. Despite the good reasons, it is important to note that the fear effect is not broadly brought out in this case. This is because, there are people who would argue that they have drunk alcohol all their lives but they have never died of alcohol. As a result, such people would simply wonder what the message tries to communicate.
The use of positive frames is that of raising hopes and giving the community an issue of concern about things that need to be done in the community. The positive frames inspire the audience to have hope and give them the reason to have something that they can fight to achieve. On the other hand, negative messages bring some form of urgency to fight some wrongdoing on some issue. It will be important to understand the issues that are associated with the wrongdoing act in place. There is one disadvantage with the use of negative message in a given scenario. With the use of negative emotions people will remember little facts about a given situation. They will not be able to remember the effects of the scenario and the wrongdoings that might have been happening in the act. Negative frames grab the attention of the audience. It is one of the ways in which the people will be able to understand the issues that are required in place. Research on emotions and the way human beings process information shows that humans are more likely to invoke some anger towards an individual when negative messages are used in advertisement. They will likely to have some anger and infer some responsibility towards some people that they think are directly responsible for some actions. Anger will also induce some perception towards taking some risks towards an individual. Messages that are known to induce fear are known to invoke some overestimation of the bad things that will happen from a situation. It is one of the strategies that help[s individuals to have high levels of awareness towards some information. Although this is the case, people are more frightened with the use of messages that have anger in their content. It is important to understand the issues that come with the use of negative message that tend to invoke fear in individuals. Also, messages that make people feel guilty will make the people be able to take action and be careful about some aspect of their lives.

SOBER DRIVING TODAY ALIVE TOMORROW

This anti-alcohol slogan encourages people to drive when sober at all times. It reminds us that lives are lost on our roads because the drivers drive under the influence of alcohol. The drivers are therefore reminded to stay away from alcohol when they are to drive. We are therefore encouraged by the slogan to be sober at all times. If all drivers were to sober at all times, there would be no incidences of road accidents as have been experienced in the past (Zaltman, 2000). The slogan trigger positive emotions as the drivers are promised that they would be alive the following day when they drive when sober.
Negative frames are known to better evoke strong reactions than positive frames. People tend to evoke strong reactions when compared to positive frames because of the anger and the fear that are associated with the negative messages. Little research has been carried on the effects of positive messages on audiences. It is important to understand the effect that come with the use of positive messages. Negative messages have yielded the results that has been the desire of many communicators. It is the need to have attention of the audience that communicators have been receptive and upbeat with the use of negative messages. Care should be taken so that the use of overly negative messages does not immobilize the audience. Research show that overly negative messages can instill too much fear to the audience. They are issues that need to be taken into control and have ways in which the audience will get enough information regarding the messages that have been used in the entire process.
The institution that people have in their subconscious minds is to have people have negative thoughts in their attitudes towards a message. When inspiring and uplifting messages are ignored, and instead replaced by scary messages, people tend to take action. There are billions of dollars that are used in countries to design negative messages. Many governments buy this method because they feel that it is more effective and successful in massing information to the public.

Hypothesis

It has been shown that negative messages tend to bring more influence on the audience than positive messages. Messages that instill fear are known to have people thinking about the message and how they can work towards what the message wants them to do. Many communicators make use of negative messages so that the attention of the audience will be achieved.it is an effective method in which the communicators are used in the entire process.

Study 2: Gain vs. loss messages

There is also an important aspect of passing information. It is important to understand the issues and the aspects of concern that should be undertaken in the research. Prospect theory is a theory that describes the relationship that exists between objective outcomes that come from point of reference and subjective reactions that people have towards these messages. Prospect theory shows the varying reactions from individuals from the messages that have been framed so that they portray gains and loss to the audience. Different individuals respond differently to the messages that have been framed in the different perspectives. The gain- or loss- framed messages have different ways of persuasion to the audience. It is important to understand the role that the gain- and loss- framed messages so that they are employed in advertising positively.

SOBER DRIVING TODAY ALIVE TOMORROW

This anti-alcohol slogan encourages people to drive when sober at all times. It reminds us that lives are lost on our roads because the drivers drive under the influence of alcohol. The drivers are therefore reminded to stay away from alcohol when they are to drive. We are therefore encouraged by the slogan to be sober at all times. If all drivers were to sober at all times, there would be no incidences of road accidents as have been experienced in the past (Zaltman, 2000).
The slogan trigger positive emotions as the drivers are promised that they would be alive the following day when they drive when sober. Some researchers have questioned the effectiveness of the fear-based messages. According to Hastings, (2004), studies have shown that messages that trigger positive emotions for example excitement, humor and love are generally more effective in relaying information than those that trigger negative emotions. The research based on road safely and domestic violence has also shown that fear slogans are less effective in the promotion of behavior change. A comparison was also recently carried out to find out whether the results of fear threats are better than messages that promote positive emotions among the people (Grube, 2002). It was realized that messages that promote positive emotions greatly result into behavior change than those that trigger fear. It is therefore important that people understand the extent to which fear appeals should be used.
The loss- and gain- framed messages have different persuasion depending on the issue that is being addressed. If there is some relative outcome from a certain behavior, individuals are likely to be persuaded from gain-framed messages. On the other hand, if the outcome is not known, results will be achieved more from loss-framed messages. One example is that behaviors are likely to be changed when people are persuaded to war sunscreens while they are in the beach. It is because wearing sunscreen has some relative gains, that is preventing skin cancer. On the other hand, loss-framed messages will be effective in detection behaviors because the outcomes are unknown. An example is that screening for breast cancer is required because the outcomes is unknown. Also, it is not detected and that they are hard to be achieved in the end result.
For a long time, smoking messages have highlighted the costs that are associated with smoking. Most of the messages from the healthcare sector are negatively framed. An example is show thus:

SMOKING CAUSES LUNG CANCER, AND MAY COMPLICATE PREGNANCY

There is no clear understanding of how these messages have been effective to the audience with the way they have been presented to the public.

Hypothesis

Messages that are loss-framed are known to be more effective and elicit reaction from audience than the messages that are positively engrained. One of the issues that will need to be taken into consideration is the audience and the aim of the message that us being designed.

Effects of slogans on age

There are different effects that age have on slogans that are put up. Research shows that younger ages do not react to positive messages. They would rather have their attention on negative and loss-framed messages. There is a need to ensure that the messages that have been framed have been designed so that the age issue is in place. Positive messages have impact on older audience than on young and youthful audience. For the youth, they tend to react to negative messages than on positive messages. There is a need to ensure that there is an understanding of the messages and issues of concern when all these are put in place. Also, messages which triggered negative emptions tend to excite youthful audiences. It is a research which has been seen to have effect on young people. Older people are wiser and not driven by emotions. This group will tend to react to factual and positive messages. They are a group which is critical in most of the undertaking. The people will want to know the impact of a given behavior on their aspect.
NO ONE WOULD LIKE TO SEE YOU BLACK OR DEAD, SO WHY NOT LET A SOBER FRIEND DRIVE

They would not react much to the message:

SOBER DRIVING TODAY ALIVE TOMORROW

Conclusion

The message that is being sent to the audience has critical implications for the audience. The manner in which the audience is reached will have profound effects on the way they are approached. Negative- and loss-framed messages have been known to be more effective when reaching audiences. These messages tend to be more effective when they are compared to positive- and gain-framed messages. It is because of the invocation that they bring to the audiences. They tend to have more reaction to the audience and have a way in which the audience will have in the entire process. When designing slogans to be used for anti-drinking and driving campaigns, it is important to consider the age of the audience.

References

Anonymous. (2000). Latest approaches to preventing alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Journal of Alcohol Research and Health. P 45-50.
Baumgartner, H. (2002). Towards a personology of the consumer. JCR.
Baumgartner, H. (2002). Towards a personology of the consumer. Journal of Consumer Research. P 24-28
Binnay, B. &. (2010). Fear, guilt and shame appeals in social marketing. Journal of Business Research. P 142-145.
De Pelsmacker, J. &. (2009). Fear threats and efficacy in threat appeals.
E.H.H, D. (2001). How fear goals work. Universiteite, Utrecht.
G., B. (2002). Ethical challenges of social marketing. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing. P 14-21.
Grube, A &. (2002). Alcohol counter advertising and slogans. Journal of Alcohol Research and Health. P 17-21.
Holbrook, M. (1987). What is consumer research? Journal of Consumer Research. P (34)
Lemann, D. R. (1999). Consumer behavior and Y2K. Journal of Consumer Research.
Lybout, C. a. (1987). What consumer research is? Journal of Consumer Research. P 70-75.
Zaltman, G. (n.d.) (2000). Consumer Researchers; Take a hike. Journal of consumer research. P 51-55.
APPENDIX
Anti-alcohol slogans

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