Free The Physiological Responses To Exercise And The Potential Mechanisms By Which Nutrition Can Influence Exercise And Sports Performance. Case Study Sample
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The human body relies on approximately 50 essential nutrients every day (Tipton & Wolfe, 2004). In addition, in an adjusted environment of an athlete in a power sport such as swimming the nutritional supply should be supplemented. A 100-m swimmer has a higher energy demand and as such requires a diet that is full of kilocalories (Stellingwerff, et al, 2011). Sufficient carbohydrates, proteins, and fats must be constantly supplied to help athletes maintain their body weight while also meeting the demands of competition and training (Stellingwerff, et al, 2011).
A high carbohydrate intake averaging between 55-60percent of total kilocalories is required for optimal performance (Burke, Hawley, Wong and Jeukendrup, 2011), as they provide more energy to the body per unit oxygen consumed than fats.A swimmer requires a minimum of 5 g CHO .kg-1 BW .day-1(Tarnopolsky, (1999). Proteins on the other hand are critical for muscle maintenance repair of tissues and for countering of infections (Burke et.al. 2001). A power swimmer requires between 1.4-1.8 g PRO .kg-1 BW .day-1. The ADA report, recommends 10-12% intake of proteins of the total calories an athlete consumes; while extra protein are stored as fat by the body.
A low-fat diet is also necessary and must account for between 25-30% of total kilocalories say Tipton and Wolfe (2004). Fat consumption by an athlete should not fall below 15% of the total energy intake, as it hinders an athlete’s performance . Vitamins and minerals can be acquired by the athletes’ body by eating a variety of protein and carbohydrate foods. While female athletes may lack riboflavin the use of milk products is recommended to ensure its adequacy in the body . Minerals such iron, potassium are important for an athlete’s blood circulation, although female athletes may have inadequate iron .
Drawing from the fact that power sports have a limited competition duration, athletes do not have any opportunity to take fluids. However, because the swimmer’s training sessions last for a while (between two to three hours), they can benefit from fluid intake. IOC (2000) reports that water plays a central role in exercise performance yet it is the most neglected nutrient. Athletes lose fluids mainly through sweat and breath. The swimmer requires a liter of water for every 1000 kilocalories consumed. Significant to note is greater intensity of exercise, doubled with long exercises, and higher humidity increases the rate of fluid loss. Table 2 in the appendix elaborates the various effects of dehydration on an athlete’s performance.
In order to sustain increased metabolic activity, the bodysystems of athletes have been reported to utilize a series of energy systems for supplying adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to enable them meet their high demand for energy. ATP is the energy source for muscle contraction. In order to address nutritional challenges, this paper proposes a periodized nutritional approach for a female 100-m swimmer.
Aim of the study
The aim of the study is to provide a multifaceted nutritional approach that can support a female swimmers training needs. In order to achieve this, the researcher will tailor nutritional requirements to the swimmer’s specific training phases. The study also aims to develop tailored energy intake nutrition that can support recovery and adaptation.
Description of the Participant:
Relevant lifestyle and training information
The athlete is a 100-m swimmer, aged 17 years old, 175cm height, and weighs 70kg. She competes for about 50-60 seconds during competitive sport. Most of her training is usually in the morning on most days. However, she also trains at night twice a week. The yearly training phases are elaborated in Fig.1, See: Appendix I. After eating her breakfast and swimming for one and a half hours, the athlete usually proceeds to school. However, when it reaches lunch hour, she reports that sheisvery hungry. Typically, the athlete’s mother has the tendency to pack her a sandwich, a fruit, and a drink. Barely one and a half hours after eating her packed meal, the athlete reports that she usually feels like she has starved the whole day.This starving has led her to eat a chocolate bar, a bag of chips or quite a number of cookies before she is served with dinner. After dinner, the swimmer is however not energized enough to train. On the contrary, she usually feels heavy, lazy and tired. She also plays field hockey as part-time hobby with her friend twice a month.
Figure 1. Yearly Training Phases (include as an appendix)
Macronutrient and fluid requirements (include as an appendix)
The Goal (include as an appendix)
Methods of Data Collection and Analysis
The primary task was to understand what was said by the interviewee (Kvale, 1996). As a model of data collection, the interview was presumed to be an ideal approach for getting the story behind the swimmer’s experiences. In this case, the interviewer primarily asked questions that probed in-depth information about training and nutrition. The nutrition data was collected to develop tailored energy intake nutrition that can support recovery and adaptation of the athlete. A 3 day diet diary was used to collect nutrition data of the athlete. The dietary analysis program used was Net WISP.
What was inputted?
The swimmer topped carbohydrates to their breakfast by adding a 200 ml glass of fruit juice, chopped fruit or milk to their cereal. She preferred wholemeal choice and at least had a piece of fresh fruit when having a light meal usually during lunch. Moreover, there were either mixed salads or at least two different types of vegetables when having a main meal. She also took 500 mls of water or other fluids per hour of training and averaged around two liters of fluid intake every day. She preferred drinking small amounts more often.
Critiques the methods of dietary assessment and analysis
The diet diary was used to help the researcher become aware of the eating habits and activity levels of the athlete. This helped the athlete to record all the food she has consumed as it can be sometime difficult to remember all that you have eaten. All food and the drink that was taken were recorded in the printed template. The dietary analysis program used was Net WISP, as it used to compute that nutrient intakes by the athlete, the software is able to do statistically analysis the food consumed by the athlete. Also, the software can audit the adequacy of the athletes menu, and do nutrient queries on the food composition.
Other methods that could have been used to collect the nutritional data are estimated food records, Multiple Pass Recall, 24 Hour Recall, and Weighed Food Records. For instance, Weighed Food Records and estimated food records weakness are they are not easily affordable and enhance miss-reporting. Also, Multiple Pass Recall and 24 Hour Recall depend on the memory of the respondent and can be biased in recording ‘bad/good’ foods.
Appendix V: Method of Estimating Nutritional Requirements
Nutritional Requirements for the Athlete
Below are nutritional requirements for the 100-M swimmer, aged 17 years old, 175cm height, and weighs 70kg. She competes for about 50-60 seconds during competitive sport
In order to support training and desired changes, the 154 lbl female swimmer requires high intakes of a caloric diet of around 3500 nutritional calories per day. Furthermore, there is need for a period of recovery after training. The daily macro target proposed should be6 to 12 grams of carbohydrates per kilogram of body weight (BW) per day. Also, the athlete requires 1.5-1.7 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. The fat requirement during the general preparation stage is 1.5-2 g FAT .kg-1 BW .day-1. The nutritional requirements during the specific preparation stage remain the same as during the preparation stage. However, there is a slight change in fat requirements in which a proposed ~1-1.5 g FAT. Kg-1 BW. Day-1. During the competition stage, the swimmer requires nutrition that can support, intense racing. Ideally, intense competition requires ~2800-4300 kcals .day-1. The swimmer primarily avoids gaining weight with reduced training volume during taper. In this case, ~6-10 grams of carbohydrates per kilogram of body weight per day is proposed. The protein requirement on the other hand is the same as the general preparation and specific preparation phases. However, the fat requirement is slightly adjusted to ~0.8-1.2 g FAT.kg-1 BW. Day-1. The averages for the nutritional requirements are tabulated above in Table 3 and charted in Figure 2.
Discussion of the findings and appropriate conclusions
Rational for dietary CHO requirements
Coggan & Coyle, (1991) postulated that a high carbohydrate diet resulted in augmented glycogen stores. The proposed amount are presumed to be the best alternative drawing from the fact that, the amount of carbohydrates that is oxidized during exercise is dependent on the intensity and duration of the activity whereby the oxidation of carbohydrates supplies a significant portion of ATP that the swimmer needs when exercising above 75 percent VO2peak.
Recommendation 1: The swimmer should consume around 45-50 grams of carbohydrates per hour during exercise with greater amounts, (between 50-60) for exercises that go past two hours.
An overview of a comprehensive carbohydrate intake can be accessed from Burke et al, (2011), Shireffs, (2011), and Jeukendrup, (2011). According to the intake portions of the athlete over four days, it can be seen that she is mostly meeting/exceeding her CHO recommended intake. However, there are not a lot of complex carbohydrates in her diet. She is choosing simple carbohydrates which are getting digested too fast and causing spikes and troughs in her blood sugar levels. This is the reason she ends up hungry after just a few hours but still feels heavy.
Rational for dietary PRO requirements
Tarnopolsky, (1999) suggests that, in the course of stable training period protein intakes higher than 1.7 grams per kilogram of body weight per day have been proved to result in increased protein oxidation.
Recommendation 2: In order for the swimmer to accommodate her training protein needs, it is recommended that 12-15 percent of their energy intake should be gained from dietary protein (IL, 2000). See Appendix IV: Protein Requirements. The subject is consistently falling short of here protein requirements. Since, she is a growing girl and an athlete, she absolutely cannot take her protein portions for granted. She needs to have some protein at all her meals. She can do this by eating skinless chicken breasts, nuts, fish, almond milk, etc.
Rational for dietary FAT requirements
Stellingwerff et al., (2007) reports that, skeletal muscles can retain the energy equivalent of glycogen as intramuscular triacyglyceride. This fat deposit in the muscles is a viable energy source during endurance training. Significant to note is the fact that, during the general preparation phase that features increased endurance activity endogenous fats can supply required amounts of fuel for the swimmer.
A fat diet is recommended mainly because, following high intensity exercise, the swimmer can utilize fat oxidation in the recovery phase (International Olympic Committee, 2000). Moreover, an observed adaptation with endurance training is the increased ability of skeletal muscle to process fat during exercise. The implication here is the fact that the swimmer can utilize fat as an important source of energy during endurance training at low exercise intensities. The subject needs good fat portions. However, this fat should come from good fat sources like nuts, seeds, fish, etc. She needs to make sure her diet doesn’t go overboard in terms of her fat requirements.
Rational for dietary ENERGY requirements:
The subject’s energy requirements are high because she is a practicing and training athlete. She is not consistent with her energy requirements and needs to get all her energy from all food sources. It is recommended that she take a multivitamin tablet to make sure she is getting all her micronutrients. The subject also needs to pay attention to her water consumption as that could be the reason for her tiredness. Additionally, it is recommended that the subject each smaller meals at equal intervals.
Limitations of the Report: This report is a comprehensive look at a 17 year old female swimmer’s diet and exercise plan. However, it does not take into account the days when the subject is sick or not training. The report doesn’t follow the subject through all her days and continuous follow-up is required for a plan to work. Additionally, the report does not account for any genetic illness in the family and the subject’s medical history is missing.
Appropriateness of supplements/ ergogenic aids: It is my opinion that at this young age, the subject should be minimizing her supplemental and ergogenic intake. It is possible for her to get all her nutrition from a healthy diet and taking any supplements ay interfere with her natural digestion. I feel that the subject needs no extra supplement, except a multivitamin to cover her stamina requirements.
After studying the subject’s needs and intake, I believe that she needs to reinvent her diet. It is important for her to eat a nutrition-dense breakfast which contains protein and complex carbohydrates. This will keep her fuller for a longer time and she will not get tired immediately. Her breakfast can include fortified cereals, eggs with whole-wheat bread, oatmeal with yogurt etc. Her lunch and dinner must include protein portions and salad. The vegetables will provide her with vitamins and minerals. She must eat a simple carbohydrate and a protein dense meal post her exercise as soon as possible. This will replenish her energy stores and help in re-building her muscles. Additionally, the subject must eat healthy snacks like nuts, fruits, salads to avoid too much gap between meals. If the subject wants to eat any junk food, it must be consumed right after her workout as this will not be converted into fat and will be used by her tired body. The subject must consume enough water according to recommendations as she could be at a risk of dehydration. All in all I feel the subject can alter her diet and reach her targets without the help of any supplements.
Bompa, T. O., & Carrera, M. (2005). Periodization training for sports: Science-based strength
and conditioning plans for 17 sports (2nd edn.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Burke, L. M., Hawley, J. A., Wong, S. H. S., &Jeukendrup, A. E. (2011). “Carbohydrates for
training and competition.”Journal of Sport Sciences, 29, S17–S27.
Coggan, A. R., & Coyle, E. F. (1991). “Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged exercise:
Effects on metabolism and performance.” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 19, 1–40.
International Olympic Committee, (2000) IOC Sport Medicine Manual, Accessed on November
29, 2014 at: http://www.sportmed.altolan.com/files/pdf/engSMMsec13.pdf
Jeukendrup, A. (2011). Nutrition for endurance sports: Marathon, triathlon, and road cycling.
Kvale, S. (1996).Interviews An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage
Lamb & R. Murray (Eds.), Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine: The metabolic
basis of performance in exercise and sport (Vol. 12, pp. 125–164). Carmel, IN: Cooper Publishing Group.
Stellingwerff, T., Boit, M. K., & Res, P. (2007a). “Nutritional strategies to optimize training and
racing in middle-distance athletes.” Journal of Sports Sciences, 25, S17–S28.
Stellingwerff, T., Boon, H., Jonkers, R. A., Senden, J. M., Spriet, L. L., Koopman, R. et al.
(2007). Significant intramyocellular lipid use during prolonged cycling in endurance trained males as assessed by three different methodologies. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 292, E1715–E1723.
Stellingwerff, T. et al (2011) “Nurtrition for Power Sports: Middle-distance Running, Track
Cycling, Rowing, Canoeing/Kayaking, and Swimming.” Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(SI); S79-S89
Shirreffs, S. M., &Sawaka, M. N. (2011). “Fluid and electrolyte needs for training, competition
and recovery.”Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, S39–S46.
Tarnopolsky, M. A. (1999). “Protein metabolism in strength and endurance activities.” In D. R.,
Tipton, K. D., &Wolfe, R. R. (2004). “Protein and amino acids for athletes.” Journal of Sports
Sciences, 22, 65–79.
TIPTON, K. D. & WOLFE, R. R. (2004). Protein and amino acids for athletes.Journal of sports sciences 22, 65-79.
Appendix 1: Figure 1. Yearly Training Phases
Macronutrient and fluid requirements
The 5,9’, 17 year old 100-m swimmer weighing 154lbs primarily competes for about 50-60 seconds during competitive sport. The approximate fractional energy is elaborated in Table 1 for the three systems of energy that supply ATP including non-oxidative glycolysis, phosphagen breakdown, and oxidative phosphorylation (Stellingwerff et al, 2007). In essence, the 100 meter swimmer relies on carbohydrates for a majority of the fuel required for exercise intensities that supersede 75% VO2max (Stellingwerff et al, 2007). Moreover, carbohydrates also supply the fuel for both oxidative phosphorylation and non-oxidative glycolysis. Contrastingly fat metabolism is exclusively aided through oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation supplies the bulk of ATP in the course of low intensity exercise whereby the athlete primarily utilizes Type 1 muscle fibers (Stellingwerff et al, 2011). Contrastingly, during high intensity exercise in which ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation is not equivalent to the rate of ATP hydrolysis, Stellingwerff et al, (2011) notes that the shortfall is compensated by substrate level phosphorylation.
Appendix II: Table 1. Energy source provision during a 100-m swim Stellingwerff et al, (2011)
Oxidative means oxidative phosphorylation
Glycolysis means anaerobic metabolism or non-oxidative glycolysis
Phospho means phosphagen breakdown
The goal of the study is to increase muscle glycogen levels. Stellingwerff, (2011) reports that low pre-exercise muscle glycogen lowers an athlete’s endurance levels and high intensity performance. Through carbohydrate loading muscle glycogen levels can be increased from 100-120 mmol/kg ww (wet weight) to approximately 150-200 mmol/kg ww (Stellingwerff, 2011). The increase as Coggan & Coyle, (1991) observe can help a high intensitysport athlete increase their endurance levels and as such enable them to exercise at an optimal pace.
Appendix III. Table 2: Effects of Dehydration
Source: IOC, 2000
Appendix IV: Table 4
Source: IOC, 2000
Appendix V: Method of Estimating Nutritional Requirements
The basal metabolic rate test employed in the study was based on the fact that the amount of oxygen that the swimmer consumed was interchangeable (Stellingwerff, 2011). To burn a single calorie, the athlete required 208.6 milliliters of oxygen. The experiment measured the amount of oxygen the swimmer required for 16 minutes while they were resting. Primarily, the athlete breathed into a face mask that covered both the face as well as the nose, as they relaxed in a reclined position. An electrocardiogram was used to take the heart rate and rhythm. The swimmer was asked not to eat any meals five hours prior to the test. Primarily, as food is digested it burns calories whereby their metabolic rate would be higher compared to at rest levels (Bompa& Carrera, 2005). Similarly, they were also asked not to exercise for at least four hours prior to the test.
Although the BMR technique was ideal for estimating the energy requirements of the swimmer, factors such as genetics, hormonal factors, and muscle mass could not be controlled for. Primarily, some unknown genetic disorders affect metabolism (Coggan & Coyle, 1991). Similarly, hormonal imbalances resulting from certain conditions, for instance, hyper and hypothyroidism also have an impact on metabolism.
The general preparation stage characterizedby a high training volume in which the swimmer trains for averagely ~ 5-12 + hours. Week-1(Stellingwerff, 2011). However, the intensity of training is usually low. The trainer primarily focuses on aerobic development. Moreover, they also use mixed modalities that comprise of resistance, as well as cross and core-training. In the specific preparation stage, training is maintained to lower the volume averaging ~ 4-10 + hours. Week-1 (Stellingwerff, 2011). The stage is characterizedby a higher training intensity. The focus of the trainer during this stage is on anaerobic development, increasing competitions and race specific pace. Part of the activities that are included in the specific training phase comprise of altitude camps. The competition phase on the other handis characterizedby lower volume of ~ 3-8+ hours. week-1 on average. The quality of training is high and intense. Training modalities during this stage usually involve targeted competitions. Lastly, during the transition phase, the swimmer training and competition levels are reduced drastically whereby in some cases they average complete rest. The aim is to enhance physiological as well as psychological recovery in order to prevent overreaching.
Appendix VI: Four Day Food Diary
Four Day Food Diary: Food Groups and Nutrients consumed:
Four Day Food Diary: Micronutrients consumed:
COULD YOU PLEASE FILL IN THE FOLLOWING:-
DIETETIC USE ONLY
KEEPING A RECORD OF WHAT YOU NORMALLY EAT AND DRINK ENABLES THE DIETICIAN TO CALCULATE YOUR CURRENT DAILY FOOD INTAKE. SO THEREFORE SUBSEQUENT NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION MAY BE TAILORED TO YOUR SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS
* RECORD EVERYTHING YOU EAT AND DRINK OVER A FOUR DAY PERIOD
* DO NOT ALTER THE FOOD AND FLUID YOU NORMALLY CONSUME
* RECORD THE TIME AT WHICH THE FOOD OR FLUID WAS CONSUMED
* RECORD ALL FOOD EATEN AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER IT IS CONSUMED
* IDEALLY AT ALL TIMES THE FOOD RECORD CHARTS SHOULD BE CLOSE AT HAND AS CONTINUAL RELIANCE ON MEMORY INCREASES ERROR
* LIST THE FOODS IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY ARE USUALLY EATEN. NOTE BEVERAGES ARE USUALLY STATED LAST AT THE END OF EACH MEAL
* NOBODY IS GOING TO CRITICISE WHAT YOU EAT, SO BE HONEST. DO NOT LEAVE OUT ANY WINE / BEER / SPIRITS OR ANY SWEET / SAVOURY SNACKS, AS THESE WILL CONTRIBUTE SIGNIFICANTLY TO YOUR OVERALL ENERGY INTAKE
* IT IS IMPORTANT TO RECORD ANY SUPPLEMENTS TAKEN i.e.: CREATINE, H5, VITAMIN/MINERAL COMPLEXES etc
* RECORD THE AMOUNT i.e. 1 TABLET / 200 MG, AND WHEN YOU TAKE THE SUPPLEMENT IN THE TABLE PROVIDED
INCLUDE AS MUCH DETAIL AS POSSIBLE ABOUT THE FOOD CONSUMED
* IT IS ESSENTIAL TO INCLUDE THE AMOUNTS/PORTION SIZE OF FOOD ACTUALLY EATEN. THIS CAN BE ACHIEVED BY USING HOUSEHOLD MEASURES.
i.e.: TEASPOON / DESSERT SPOON / TABLESPOON / ICE-CREAM SCOOP
SMALL / MEDIUM / LARGE PORTIONS / GLASS
¼, ½, 1 PINT
THIN / THICK SPREADING
* IF YOU CANNOT MAKE A RELIABLE ESTIMATE OF A FOOD WEIGHT, DESCRIBE THE FOOD SIZE AS ACCURATELY AS POSSIBLE i.e.: 2 x LOW FAT PORK SAUSAGES 1 INCH DIAMETER, 3 INCHES LONG, RATHER THAN GUESSING THE WEIGHT
* IF CONSUMING PRE-PACKAGED FOODS i.e. PACKET OF CRISPS, IF AT ALL POSSIBLE, TRY TO LOOK AT THE PACKET AND RECORD THE ACTUAL WEIGHT
* RECORD ANYTHING ADDED TO DRINKS e.g. SUGAR, MILK etc
* SPECIFY THE TYPE OF FOOD
i.e. BREAD: SMALL / MEDIUM / LARGE LOAF
THIN / MEDIUM / THICK SLICE
WHITE / BROWN / GRANARY
MILK: SKIMMED / SEMI-SKIMMED / FULL-FAT
PASTEURISED / STERILISED / UHT
* IF KNOWN INCLUDE THE BRAND NAME i.e. KELLOGS CORNFLAKES, DEL MONTE FRESH UNSWEETENED ORANGE JUICE
* KEEP FOOD LABELS FOR REFERENCE IF POSSIBLE
* SPECIFY THE COOKING METHOD
IT IS IMPORTANT TO RECORD THE COOKING METHOD AS THIS MAKES A DIFFERENCE TO THE OVERALL ENERGY CONTENT OF THE DIET
i.e. RAW / BOILED / POACHED / SMOKED / GRILLED / SHALLOW FRIED / DEEP-FRIED / BRAISED / ROASTED
* TRY TO INCLUDE RECIPES FOR HOMEMADE DISHES IF AT ALL POSSIBLE
* IF ONE RECORDS A FOOD ITEM / MEAL BUT ONLY EATS A FRACTION, REMEMBER TO RECORD THE ACTUAL AMOUNT EATEN i.e. ¼, 1/3 etc
* NOTE ANYTHING YOU DO NOT EAT e.g. JACKET POTATO (NOT SKIN), CHICKEN (NOT SKIN)
RECORD ALL EXERCISE UNDERTAKEN:
* RECORD THE TIME YOU CARRY OUT THE EXERCISE
* RECORD THE DURATION OF YOUR EXERCISE SESSION e.g. 60 MINUTES
* SPECIFY THE INTENSITY OF YOUR EXERCISE SESSION:
e.g. LEVEL 5 ON TREADMILL / 7 MIN PER MILE RUNNING PACE / 6 MPH ON
TREADMILL / 15 MPH ON BICYCLE
VERY LIGHT / MODERATE / HARD / VERY HARD
COULD STILL TALK / SLIGHTLY OUT OF BREATH / BREATHING VERY HARD
FOOD RECORD CHART (EXAMPLE)
SUPPLEMENTS TAKEN (EXAMPLE)
EXERCISE DIARY (EXAMPLE)
FOOD RECORD CHART
FOOD RECORD CHART
FOOD RECORD CHART
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