Free Research Paper On A Position Concerning The Trend

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Education, Students, Inclusion, Study, Literature, Support, Classroom, Family

Pages: 8

Words: 2200

Published: 2020/11/12

Inclusion in Elementary Education: Description Analysis and Literature Summary

Inclusion in Elementary Education: Description Analysis and Literature Summary


Inclusion issues in elementary educational settings has been a highly influential topic for debate among teachers, administrators, and all concerned stakeholders. Whether children are visually impaired, physically and/or mentally handicapped, or function with autism a cogent analysis and conversation is occurring across the country – and indeed, the world. The brief description herein posits to include three points of speculation within a rubric of the following: (1) A summary of literature reviewed, (2) An analysis of support of the trend, and (3) A problem concerning the trend. In this updated version, five more additions from the contemporary body of literature attempt to set a general foundation for further research investigation and critique.
One reason why the problem of decision-making and policy practice persists demonstrate that a wide range of disabilities reflecting a complex multi-functional palette of capabilities among elementary-aged school children. For example, one student who may be visually impaired functioning at a high level of cognitive capabilities may encounter difficulty concentrating if a severely disabled fellow-student with autism affects the former student’s ability to concentrate and excel in his or her studies. Teacher attitudes and abilities to maintain control in classrooms while simultaneously delivering quality directives, in terms of required standards, may impact upon the situation at ground-level as well. From gathering the scanty literature researched materials from what was available, clearly calculates the need for further study examining the status of full inclusion for children in elementary education. This review and descriptive narrative or analysis is not meant to specifically (or negatively) criticize the body of academic literary work done thus far in looking at the state of inclusion. Rather, this overview and descriptive analysis may be properly viewed as a launching point for further analysis in the area, and regarded as an investigative approach to dealing with the situation fairly – while also digging a bit deeper to uncover valid reasons for purposeful study as time goes on.

Summary of Literature Reviewed

It is no secret that each educator and administrator has his or her own ideologies in terms of teaching methodology, understanding of theory and applications, however inclusion in elementary education topics in the literature has coded the need for more updated material of contributions. So far, in review of the literature resources added to this project prior to today’s recent addition of five more sources, the dates of the references extends from the years between 1999 and 2010. While one can appreciate the inclusion of older material as sources which carve out generalized points of useful review for researchers and students, the fact remains that the particular limitations have imposed upon the way in which one might open up new avenues and vistas for consideration in collection of appropriate materials for your database.
In the Duhaney, Laurel & Salend, Spencer (1999) study the specifications deal with the level of quality education that disabled students receive. The New York professors have written the article free from bias and their reported results clearly are stated. The general flow of literature reviews fall into the main categories of studies, generalized analyses of historical importance, qualitative research study-report feedback from teachers, educators’ viewpoints and educational styles, teacher attitudes, an overview of other available sources on the topic, and specific strategies (or observations) in terms of classroom activities or policy decision making. Philosophies had also been drawn from the Platt, Harper, & Mendoza (2003) discussion that distinctively regard key administrative policy developments in the Florida State school system, in a perusal of both negative and positive aspects.
Once several of the literature material have contributed a general historical background, examples, or mention of educational policy, one noteworthy addition written by Loreman, McGhie-Richmond, Barber, and Lupart (2008) draws particular attention and is quite interesting. The article pursues students’ points of views in terms of their qualitative experiences in inclusive school settings. The attempt of their research paper drives an effort to identify demographic differences from a wide base of over 400 students, spanning from K-through-12th grade. Since the inclusive policies and teacher implementations and attitudes will directly (or at the least, indirectly) affect the children then this addition has special significance and should inspire future stakeholders to think about their opinions, in the first place.

Analysis of Support of the Trend

Getting a proper and accurate handle on any analysis in support of the trend only allows one to understand the historical direction of what already has occurred, and quickly become aware that much support is being gathered by all stakeholders. Therefore, it is most encouraging that a plethora of interested parties and participants are making their voices heard, in terms of weighing in on the situation. The trend is establishing groups to survey, collect data, create studies, and these trending behaviors are emerging from all components of analytical work in the area of inclusion in elementary schools. Principals’ and teachers’ attitudes serve as welcome input, especially when combined with serious approaches to understanding students’ inputs. The trend also includes growing literature contribution from the global community. We are all on this planet together, and can learn from one another. While it is true that what works best in one culture may not translate well into another, experimental perusal of all information and studies can help policy-makers and teaching staff to make increasingly effective protocols and implementations to helping smooth pathways to improvements.

It is in the opinion of this writer that a continuation of gathering students’ feedback, along with input from global sources, can help mitigate the problem of vast differences among special needs students. Not all special needs students can readily adapt into an ‘inclusive’ situation, depending upon the physical/cognitive levels, teacher capabilities, and/or facilities available at the school. For example, obviously a high-ranking modernized school with the highest technology in digitized learning aids and pleasantly clean and accommodating infrastructure (yes, the building) will set a better foundation for all learners. Therefore, the central part of this criticism focuses upon the fact that the trend seems to be going in the right direction. We just need more of it. That’s where you come in.

Annotated Bibliography

Coşkun, Y.D., Tosun, U., & Macaroğlu, E. (2009). Classroom teacher styles of using and
development materials of inclusive education. [Data file]. Retrieved from
This research deals with the challenges of an inclusive classroom for teachers used to teach regular classrooms. The use of basic characteristics is perceived essential for effective teaching while the use of educational material makes comprehension and learning easier for all students. However, to students with disabilities educational materials are more than just mildly important, they are crucial to learning. The article focuses on determining the ways classroom teachers choose to use and develop instructional materials for the disabled students in their classes. Through the collected data (both quantitative and qualitative) in this research, significant conclusions are made as per the efficiency of teachers to develop and use instructional materials.
McLeskey, J., & Waldron, N.L. (2011, April). Proceedings from Council for Exceptional
children Convention: Full inclusion programs for elementary students with learning
disabilities: Can they meet needs in an era of high stakes accountability? National
Harbor, MD: Council. *Link {}.

The conference paper correlated to, and addressed, a review of the No Child Left Behind

Program Act in 2004, while evaluating past research on aspects of whether children with learning disabilities could find needed support in terms of rectifying a merging with accountability standards – particularly in reading and math. Findings showed that most children in this category made little and unimpressive academic progress, despite that some children did make adequate progress who were engaged in the full-inclusion program.
Sansosti, J.M., & Sansosti, F.J. (2012). Inclusion for students with High-Functioning Autism
Spectrum disorders: Definitions and decision making. Psychology in the Schools, 49(10), 917-931. doi:10.1002/pits.21652
The qualitative analysis from this journal article uses data to investigate how general educational inclusion placement for high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) may be beneficial, or continue to be controversial since their numbers are on the rise. Utilizing myriad interviews, both group and individual, diverse components of people surveyed occurred in the rubric from four elementary schools. The overall effectiveness for the inclusion of this population rendered positive feedback, and recommendations for future examinations of this issue called for a multi-team approach to determine outcomes.
Sadioğlu, O., Bilgin, A., Batu, S., & Oskal, A. (2013). Problems, expectations, and suggestions

Of elementary teachers regarding inclusion. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice,

13(3), 1760-1765.
This perspective and study from a global viewpoint of analysis, from Turkey, details how investigators evaluated elementary teachers’ inclusive educational applications, in terms of measurements of success. The study utilized descriptive methodologies (in a qualitative format) to determine findings from a data-gathering of a series of semi- structured interviews. The researchers discovered that the main problems were enveloped in the inadequacy of the physical conditions of classrooms – thereby infrastructure issues proved to play a role in the hindrance of advancing a smooth process in effective inclusive teaching environments. Furthermore, they found a great need for further training and material support, which makes sense when considering the lack of upgrades in terms of infrastructure issues.
Waggoner, C.R., Shaughnessy, M.F., Wells, R., & Moore, T.L. (2011). Reflections on inclusion

At the elementary level: Administrative and other perspectives. International Journal of

Academic Research Part B; 2012; 24-31. doi: 10.7813/2075-44124.2012/4-6/B.5
The interesting quality about this paper is that they approached the topic of inclusion as a hotly debated issue, within the sphere of education, and thereby opened a discussion of a variety of perspectives. The hope for writing the paper held a strong desire to make further effective, and positive progress in pulling together an understanding among teachers, parents, and counsellors in order to enable real-life improvement, and appropriate decisions. What is refreshing about the paper is its realistic approach, and given real-world examples of parent-administrative and teacher engagement in confronting specified situations involving children.
Whitburn, B. (2013). The dissection of paraprofessional support in inclusive education: ‘You’re
in mainstream with a chaperone.’ Australasian Journal of Special Education, 37(2), 147- 161.
In this Australian-based qualitative study, the researchers had a chance to speak with secondary-level visually impaired students who voiced their opinions about the professional support they received in their educational experience. While it is true, that these subjects are at the secondary level in education (as opposed to the elementary level) the study offers value in reviewing emergent themes in terms of pedagogical roles in the classroom for (and as) tools for special educators. Once again, this source represents examples of how modelled support can be integrated into the inclusion educational experience.
Brisendine, Melissa et al. (2008). Is Full Inclusion Desirable? Asian Social Science, Vol.4, No.1. Retrieved from:
Given that every educator has their own opinion on full inclusion, research should be taken into both the benefits and drawback of such education service. This article includes a review of 58 sources in regards whether full inclusion should be provided to all disabled students, regardless of their handicapping severity or condition. The authors present both the pros and cons of full inclusion while presenting several opposing ideas about the subject.
Coúkun, Yelkin, Tosun, Ulku, & Masaroglu, Esra (2008). Classroom Teacher Styles Of Using And Development Materials Of Inclusive Education. Elsevier. Retrieved from:
This research deals with the challenges of an inclusive classroom for teachers used to teach regular classrooms. The use of basic characteristics is perceived essential for effective teaching while the use of educational material makes comprehension and learning easier for all students. However, to students with disabilities educational materials are more than just important; they are crucial to their learning. The article focuses on determining the ways classroom teachers choose to use and develop instructional materials for the disabled students in their classes. Through the collected data (both quantitative and qualitative) in this research, significant conclusions are made as per the efficiency of teachers to develop and use instructional materials.
Duhaney, Laurel & Salend, Spencer (1999). The Impact of Inclusion on Students With and Without Disabilities and Their Educators. Sage Journals: Remedial and Special Education Journal, Volume 20. doi: 10.1177/074193259902000209.
This is an unbiased study that deals with the quality of education provided to students in a mainstream and a non-inclusion classroom. This study will help us compare the quality of education offered to disabled students as opposed to non-disabled students and whether teachers are now more attentive to the educational needs of disabled students. IT becomes obvious that mainstreaming does not affect the education of non-disabled students negatively.
Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth (2005) The attributes of a successful Learning Support Teacher
in Australian inclusive classrooms. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs 5(2):68-76. Retrieved from:
This article contains an interesting study according to which 18 general classroom teachers and 12 learning support teachers were asked their opinion on the characteristics of a successful learning support teacher. Their viewpoints, although mismatched, provide a valuable insight as per how important Experience, Communication, and Personal traits are considered to be, from the educator’s perspective.
Flynn, S. (2010). Inclusion Strategies for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Retrieved from:
This article gives a background on students with disabilities of various spectrums. It deals with the causes of disabilities, the intellectual deficiencies of those with the disorder, and the social impairments that follow. It gives valuable information as per the issues that arise in the classroom due to disability while allowing readers to obtain a deeper understanding of the characteristics of particular types of disorders.
Forness, S. & Kavale, K. (2000). History, Rhetoric, and Reality: Analysis of the Inclusion Debate. Sage Journals: Remedial and Special Education, Volume 21. doi: 10.1177/074193250002100505.
This article gives the historical background of mainstreaming and summarizes everything from the beginning of mainstreaming until inclusion. It also discusses how people feel about mainstreaming providing us with interesting facts. It not only presents the debate and people’s viewpoints about mainstreaming, but also the need to take the labels off students with disabilities and put them in the classroom, be it general education or special education.
Kimbrough, Rebecca, Mellen, Kate (2012). Perceptions of Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in the Middle School. AMLE. Retrieved from:
Since much is written about inclusion and its effectiveness in the educational settings, it is wise to also try to define inclusion, from many perspectives, including the educator’s. This article presents how various researchers, parents, educators, and students define inclusion and what it means to them. The authors also note the implications of inclusion, which should also be noted and provide important information on what needs to be done to make inclusion more effective.
Platt, E., Harper, C., & Mendoza, M. B. (2003). Dueling philosophies: Inclusion or separation for Florida’s English language learners? TESOL Quarterly, 37(1), 105-133.
Loreman, Tim, Richmond, Donna, Barber, Jennifer, Lupard, Judy (2008). Student Perspectives on Inclusive Education: A Survey of Grade 3-6 Children in Rural Alberta, Canada. International Journal Of Whole Schooling Vol 5 No. 1. Retrieved from:
This is a very interesting paper that provides essential information in regards what students think about inclusion and their experience in inclusive schools. It tries to identify demographic differences in the reports of more than 400 students, from the first grade and up to the 12th, and will give us another perspective, other than the teachers’ viewpoints on inclusion at schools. Maybe, results will shed some light as per potential flaws in inclusion education that could be addressed in time.
Russell, Johnston (2004). Toward refined instruction through inclusion: Evaluation of an elementary school inclusion program. ProQuest.

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