Good Argumentative Essay About Do Anti-Aging Creams Work?
The global expansion of the Anti-aging industry continues to flourish in a massive scale as present-day consumers, women in particular, continue to pursue the fountain of youth and the sought-after image of eternal beauty. This trend is further cultivated because of advancing scientific research and revolutionary discoveries in the field of Chemistry. The invention of new methodologies in isolating novel substances which promise the preservation of youthful skin and in the assessment of anti-aging products serve to fortify the niche constructed by cosmetic corporations for their age-defying product lines.
Global trends in the fashion and beauty industry are fast to ride onto this technological groundwork leading to unrealistic portrayals and false claims of anti- wrinkle creams and youth-enhancing advertisements. Furthermore, harmful side effects of the products such as burns and allergic dermatitis are purposefully ignored. This paper not only explores the scientific basis of anti-aging products, it also elaborates on the beauty trade as a whole and how it thrives on the susceptibility of the youth-fixated market.
Keywords: anti-aging products, age-defying, beauty care, anti-wrinkle cream, youth enhancement, beauty advertisements, cosmetics, global trends, women, fountain of youth
The upsurge of anti-aging creams and anti-wrinkle formulations had been a multi-billion business especially for Cosmetic Moguls in the Beauty Care industry (Kapoor et al., 2014).These companies allude to scientific proof that anti-aging elements work, but they refuse to show those studies or to demonstrate that the product has sufficient amounts of the substances to warrant effectivity (Tsouderos, 2011). Moreover, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) categorizes anti-wrinkle lotions and creams under cosmetics, which means they don’t have any medical value. Consequently, these products don't go through scrupulous testing for safety and efficacy so there's no assurance that these over-the-counter products will diminish your wrinkles (Mayo Clinic, 2013). This paper aims to investigate the validity of scientific conceptions particularly in Chemistry and the effectivity of their application on anti-aging products that claim to delay and even reverse the signs of skin aging.
How anti-aging products work
As a person gets older, the mitotic activity of the epidermal layer decreases and skin cells divide more slowly. This layer is unable to repair itself so quickly, and becomes thinner with advancing age. The dermis on the other hand consists of collagen and elastin fibres responsible for the skin’s strength, flexibility and great tensile strength to the skin. As a person gets older these fibres degrade and decrease in production. These dermal modifications, together with the loss of hypodermal fat, result in wrinkle formation (Johnston, 2008).
Cosmetic companies spend billions of dollars in the research and development of innovative formulations, chiefly creams that retard the signs of ageing. There is a wide variety of components in these topical products causing youth retaining effects on the skin.
Alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs), such as glycolic acid and lactic acid along with Beta-hydroxy acids (BHAs), like salicylic acid , are frequently used in anti-wrinkle products to eradicate dead cells from the external layer of the skin (Johnston, 2008).
Investigators created a model that illustrates how glycolic acid, the most biologically available AHA, can cross into keratinocytes to produce free protons, leading to a very acidic state within the cell (UC Davis, 2012). Merinville et al. (2010) have demonstrated that approximately1% of Sodium Salicylate incorporated in oil-in-water emulsions considerably decreased the indications of photo damage in contrast to placebo. Methodologies used are expert wrinkle grading and in vivo FOITS evaluation after application of 4 and 8 weeks.
Stem Cell technology on the other hand had been the new craze in the anti-aging innovation world market. Zhang et al. (2014) proposes from their study results that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are similarly efficient in antiaging therapy. The activity of ACS is associated with the inhibition of advanced glycation end product (AGE) levels which precedes the aging process while increasing the levels of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) responsible for antioxidant function.
A comparative study by Goldberg (2014) shows that GliSODin[R] Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula (GAAF) concocted with other nutraceuticals can sustain enhancements in the structure and behavior of skin cells which include structural integrity , elasticity, and hydration (Goldberg, 2014).
Dreher et al. (2013) conducted a study that aims to appraise a new skin-lightening complex (SLC). After 12 weeks of application with a sunscreen twice daily, results yield that the SLC produced an increase in the brightness of skin tone with a well-tolerated effect among subjects.
3-D imaging such as Fast Optical in vivo Topometry of Human Skin (FOITS) is being applied to evaluate the capacity of anti-aging creams to improve coarseness and wrinkle depth particularly on infraorbital and crow’s foot areas (Kaczvinsky et al., 2009).
Why anti-aging creams don’t really work
According to Ramos-e-Silva et al (2013), there are two types of aging- intrinsic and extrinsic aging. These two forms are accountable for the different skin changes that would generate a senile face. While anti-aging products promise the fountain of youth, it only acts upon the extrinsic part of aging such as sunlight exposure. It has no effect on intrinsic factors such as telomerase action, hormonal changes, anatomical variations and ethnicity.
The controversy is still ongoing when it comes to the safety of retinoids for women of child-bearing age. Oral retinoid is identified to be teratogenic which produces a predicament for the prescription of topical tretinoin. Another major concern is instability, particularly in the presence of light and oxygen. To ensure the stability of retinoid in the complete product, formulation and packaging must preferably take place in a setting with marginal exposure to light and oxygen. The container of the final product has to also be opaque and impermeable to oxygen (Ramos-e-Silva et al., 2013).
Another aspect to be deliberated is the utilisation of retinoids for sun protection. Topical retinoids are incorporated in sunscreens as antioxidants, but this is debatable. Retinoids do not provide any ultraviolet protection or blocking. It is neither an effective sunscreen nor a preservative. Since these topical creams may cause desquamation, erythema, pruritus, or a burning sensation, majority of consumers end up not staying on the treatment (Ramos-e-Silva et al., 2013).
AHAs in high concentrations are used as chemical peels but they are also notorious in increasing skin photosensitivity, and it has been shown that glycolic acid and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impede proliferation and stimulate apoptosis in human keratinocytes.
Some studies report that there is no consistent clinical data supporting the use of topical C vitamin for improving fine lines and reducing pigmentation and inflammation. Other researches state that these preparations are not effective on the skin because of very low concentration of L-ascorbic acid or the product may be exposed to air and light, compromising its stability. Additional studies report that the L-ascorbic acid molecule in the arrangement of an ester or a combination of isomers could not be efficiently absorbed or metabolized through the skin (Ramos-e-Silva et al., 2013).
The application of topical vitamin E has been documented as a benign substance with adverse reactions generally limited to a slight irritation. Apparently, there are no data to support any effect of vitamin E in topical therapies purporting improvements in discoloration, texture, or skin wrinkling, despite the plethora of merchandises available on the marketplace that contain numerous forms of vitamin E. Scientific records also has not presented which, if any, commercial form of the vitamin might have the greatest penetration and bioavailability.
Niacinamide is known to be a powerful antioxidant but the most important challenge of working with niacinamide and nicotinate esters is avoiding hydrolysis to nicotinic acid which in turn, even at low doses, can induce an intense skin reddening or flushing. Formulating in the pH range of 4 to 7 is preferred to prevent hydrolysis hence preparations containing both niacinamide and salicylic acid or zinc oxide are problematic.
Controversies as to the daily use of sunblocks have been raised because of the possible carcinogenic effects and systemic absorption of micronized titanium dioxide, topical oxybenzone, and the sunscreen additive retinylpalmitate (Ramos-e-Silva et al., 2013).
An alarming report by Ghadishah et al. (2002) was submitted about a case of secondary burns to the face and neck causing airway compromise as a result of a professional facial treatment application of citric acid. The question stands, what concentration of Alpha-hydroxy acids would render creams as both effective and safe? When does less become ineffective and more potentially hazardous?
Hydroxydecyl ubiquinone is advertised as coenzyme Q10’s synthetic analogue, making it a key ingredient in anti-ageing creams. News about an actress who experienced a rapid onset of itchy, red, burning skin with swelling of the face. The facial eruption was related to a second application of an antiaging cream containing Hydroxydecyl ubiquinone characterized by serious facial erythema and flaking with infraorbital edema. The clinical diagnosis was allergic contact dermatitis (McAleer et al., 2008).
Belhadjali et al. (2001) documented a case of allergic dermatitis to topical vitamin C causing 3-month eruption of eczema of the face, characterized by red swelling of the eyelids, and erythematous lesions spreading throughout the face and neck folds. If the efficiency of anti-aging creams is the issue, do harmful side effects cancel out the slightest of benefits that these anti-aging creams can deliver?
Phytotherapy is another expansion in the sphere of skin rejuvenation. Frequently used
botanicals include grape seed extract, licorice extract and evening primrose just to name a few
(Cronin and Draelos, 2010). Several of these products are classified as cosmeceuticals but the quality is questionable due to the lack of testing criteria and their exemption from the approval of the Food and Drug Administration. How can one establish the efficiency and safety of these new treatments if they are not properly tested? If FDA does not regulate these products, consumers are at a risk of being scammed by fraudulent claims and deceitful ads by greedy Cosmetic syndicates (Tsouderos, 2011).
The setback of stem cell technology and its antiaging properties lies in the lifespan of these stem cells in vitro. When freshly harvested and applied in a laboratory setting- it might work, but stem cells could not survive for a length of time contained in an emulsion, and stored in a shelf for a couple of years!
Marketing of cosmetics every so often makes convincing claims related to active ingredients. This is particularly so for anti-ageing merchandises, where the demonstration and use of "active" ingredients may generate new problems in their category as cosmetics or therapeutic products (Loden et al., 2007).
There is no question when it comes to the credibility of studies testing anti-aging ingredients, the dispute lies whether Cosmetic companies use the same percentage of active ingredients during mass production of their anti-aging products.
O’ Neil (2014) points out that false advertisements are becoming rampant due to global trends of the present economy and the financial risks implicated in the advertising industry. Beauty and fashion industries are the recent focus of advertising regulation throughout Europe. Misleading practices, which comprise the application of digital modification software and dubious claims about the outcomes of cosmetic items are being monitored.
Numerous studies have validated the effectiveness of specific ingredients used in anti-wrinkle creams and other age-defying products. Before trusting the promises of each cosmetic product, one should analyze the hormonal and genetic factors, as well as anatomical variants, considering that they, alone, generate limits to the success of the cosmetic product to each type of skin.
Another problem rests in the discrepancy being created by beauty corporations with magnified claims and sensationalized advertisements of these anti-aging products all for the sake of commercial profit. While the active ingredients in research labs and testing models of scientific institutes seem to work, one cannot verify the series of adulterations and the actual amount of potent ingredients in a tube of a commercially modified beauty cream. Anti-aging products work provided that active ingredients are authentic, and has great stability in a commercially prepared form.
One aspect is the lack of testing and regulation by the Food and Drug Administration which ensures the quality and efficacy of anti-aging products. This not only protects the consumers from fraudulent claims, FDA intervention safeguards buyers from damaging adverse effects of these prematurely assessed commodities.
Moreover, when expectations are made through sensible and truthful information and not distorted by exaggerated claims, the criterion for their efficiency is properly established.
Belhadjali, H., Giordano-Labadie, F., Bazex, J. (2001). Contact dermatitis from vitamin C in a cosmetic anti-aging cream. Contact Dermatitis. 45 (5). 317. Retrieved from: http://eds. b.ebscohost.com.laureatech.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?sid=ccaf35c4-fbc3-44f0-8791-9b75dcb656bd%40sessionmgr113&vid=0&hid=122&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=aph&AN=5415139
Cronin, H., Draelos, Z., (2010), Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 9 (3), 218-225. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com. laureatech.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=7cff2888-1e34-4394-8e0a-e460716e7127%40sessionmgr4005&vid=0&hid=4113
Dreher, F., Draelos, Z., Gold, M., Goldman, M., Fabi, S., Puissegur, L.M. (2013). Efficacy of hydroquinone-free skin-lightening cream for photoaging. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatolog,. 12(1), 12-17. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.laureatech. idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=17&sid=524d997e-de70-4a12-882f-7e25c1642fa4%40 sessionmgr4003&hid=4113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=aph&AN=85747321
Ghadishah, D., Gorchynski, J. (2002). Clinical communication: Airway compromise after routine alpha-hydroxy facial peel administration. Journal of Emergency Medicine. 22(4):353-355. Retrieved from: http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.laureatech.idm. oclc.org/ eds/detail/ detail?vid=8&sid=6edf70c5-eb44-45de-b97a-968e62f41ae3%40sessionmgr 114&hid=122&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=edselp&AN= S0736467902004353
Goldberg, L. (2014) A single center, pilot, double-blinded, randomized, comparative, prospective clinical study to evaluate improvements in the structure and function of facial skin with tazarotene 0.1% cream alone and in combination with GliSODin Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula. Clinical, Cosmetic And Investigational Dermatology, 7, 139-144. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.laureatech.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/ detail?vid=11&sid= 524d997e-de70-4a12-882f-7e25c1642fa4%40sessionmgr4003&hid= 4113&bdata= JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.400414913
Johnston, J. (2008). Anti-wrinkle Potions. InfoChem, 109, 2-4. Retrieved from: http://www.rsc. org/images/InfochemMarch08_tcm18-113919.pdf
Kaczvinsky, J., Griffiths, C., Schnicker, M., Li, J. (2009) . Efficacy of anti-aging products for periorbital wrinkles as measured by 3-D imaging. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 8(3), 228-233. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.laureatech.idm.oclc.org/eds/ pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f296037a-578a-4dbe-92d7-513e49bfd7b7%40sessionmgr 4004&vid=0&hid=4113
Kapoor, M., Si, S. (2014). Strategic Analysis of Cosmeceuticals with Special Reference to Antiaging Creams. International Journal of Business and Management Invention , 3(1), 44-52. Retrieved from: http://www.ijbmi.org/papers/Vol%283%291/Version-2/E0312044052.pdf
Loden, M., Ungerth, L., Serup, J. (2007). Changes in European Legislation Make it Timely to Introduce a Transparent Market Surveillance System for Cosmetics. Acta Derm Venereol, 87: 485-492. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.laureatech.idm.oclc.org/eds/ pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=524d997e-de70-4a12-882f-7e25c1642fa4%40sessionmgr4003 &vid=9&hid=4113
Mayo Clinic. (2013). No guarantees: Assessing safety and effectiveness. Diseases and Conditions: Wrinkles. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/wrinkles/in-depth/wrinkle-creams/ART-20047463?pg=2
McAleer, M., Collins, P. (2008). Allergic contact dermatitis to hydroxydecyl ubiquinone (idebenone) following application of anti-ageing cosmetic cream. Contact Dermatitis. 59 (3), 178-179. Retrieved from: http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.laureatech.idm. oclc.org/ eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=2745a146-cab6-4b0a-b354-c5c1d0d88fe4% 40sessionmgr114&vid=1&hid=122
Merinville, E., Byrne, A., Rawlings, A., Muggleton, J., Laloeuf, A. (2010). Three clinical studies showing the anti-aging benefits of sodium salicylate in human skin. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 9, 174–184. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com. laureatech. idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=524d997e-de70-4a12-882f-7e25c1642fa4%40sessionmgr4003&hid=4113
O’Neil, A. (2014). A Call for Truth in the Fashion Pages: Whatthe Global Trend in Advertising Regulation, Means for U.S. Beauty and Fashion. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies. 21(2), 619-641. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.laureatech. idm.oclc. org/eds/ pdfviewer/ pdfviewer?sid=524d997e-de70-4a12-882f-7e25c1642fa4% 40 sessionmgr4003&vid=7&hid=4113
Ramos-e-Silva, M., Ribeiro, L., Ramos-e-Silva, S., Fucci-da-Costa, A. (2013). Anti-aging cosmetics: Facts and controversies. Clinics in Dermatology .31, 750–758. Retrieved from: http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.laureatech.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=1&sid =8364124a-d273-47ba-afed- 64d3156cc448%40sessionmgr114&hid=122&bdata =JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=cmedm&AN=24160281
Tsouderos, T. (2011). Do anti-aging skin creams work? Mostly no, dermatologists say. Phys.org. Retrieved from: http://phys.org/news/2011-02-anti-aging-skin-creams-dermatologists.html
Zhang, S., Dong, Z., Peng, Z., Lu, F. (2014) Anti-Aging Effect of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Skin Aging Induced by D-Galactose. PLOS ONE, 9 (5), 1-7. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.laureatech.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/ pdfviewer?sid=96b5ac92-853b-48dd-83b4 55d50d68f3b1%40sessionmgr 4003&vid =0&hid=4113