However, The Turning Point Of The American Revolutionary War Was The Battle Of Saratoga. Research Paper

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: England, America, United States, War, American Revolution, Strategy, Military, Empire

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2020/12/28

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RESEARCH PAPER SCAFFOLD:

Step 1 Thesis

Step 2 HOOK:
At the time, Britain was a war superpower and should have won the war.
Step 3 Sources:
Source 1 (book/Primary Source)
According to:
Jeffery H. Wallenfeldt, “In 1776, General Howe failed to recognize and exploit the weak position of the American colonists at Long Island.”
Wallenfeldt, Jeffrey H. The American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812: People, Politics, and Power. New York: Britannica Educational Pub. in association with Rosen Educational Services, 2010. Print. 57

The main idea about this subject is:

The Europeans were led by incompetent military leaders such as General Howe.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
1) “Furthermore, during a standoff at White Plains, General Howe failed to attack the weak forces of George Washington.” (Wallenfeldt 58)
2) , “The war reached a turning point in autumn 1777 when the Americans won the Battle of Saratoga.” (63)
3) “The French were unwilling to enter into an open alliance until it became certain that there would be no reconciliation between America and Britain.” (Wallenfeldt 67)

Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here:

There were not any facts which contradicted my thesis.
In conclusion, Jeffery H. Wallenfeldt says: that the British army were led by incompetent leaders who had made mistakes that led to the British Empire losing the American Revolutionary War about my topic.

Source 2 (Primary Source/book)

According to: Morgan and Morgan, “There were many loyalists that supported the British crown’s claim to the American colonies.” (Morgan and Morgan 56)
Morgan, Edmund S, and Helen M. Morgan. The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution. Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the U of North Carolina P, 1995. Print.
The main idea about this subject is: Due to the heavy taxes placed on the Americans, the British Empire had isolated its supporters in America. This led to the British having difficulty with resupplying its troops.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
1) However, due to so many laws the British Parliament passed which led to heavy taxes, the British Empire had anger their supporters. (58)
2) The British, being in a foreign land, had a difficult time finding the necessary resources they needed to win the war such as food, shelter, and military supplies. (64)
3) Another reason the British suffered a defeat at the hands of the Americans was due to inadequate military strategies. (69)

Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here: None

In conclusion, Morgan and Morgan says: that the laws the British Parliament passed became a hardship for everyone in the American colonies including their supporters. As a result, the loyalists in America refused to help the British about my topic.

Source 3

According to: George Washington’s Mount Vernon research collections, George Washington’s “strategy of attrition, or strategy of erosion as scholars sometimes describe it, would keep the Continental Army intact while wearing down the British army.”
"Fabian Strategy · George Washington's Mount Vernon." George Washington's Mount Vernon. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <http://www.mountvernon.org/research-collections/digital-encyclopedia/article/fabian-strategy/>.
The main idea about this subject is: The British lack the necessary military strategies to counter the American’s military strategies. Furthermore, the British failed to successfully copy the Americans in their war strategies.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
1) Washington hoped this strategy would frustrate the British government, causing them to lose patience and eventually end the war.
2) The Battle of Brandywine (September 11, 1777) was the only occasion between the disastrous defeats around New York City and the end of the war that Washington risked his army in a full-scale battle.
3) At the Siege of Boston and the battles for New York, Washington displayed his willingness to fight. But the performance of the Continental Army demonstrated to him that his army could not stand up to British regulars in a conventional battle.

Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here:

No contradiction was found within this source.
In conclusion, the George Washington Mount Vernon research collection says: that the Americans had better military strategies than the British despite the British winning many battles about my topic.

Source 4

According to:
Major John A Tokar of the Army Logistics University (date of publication unknown), the British Empire had lost the American Revolutionary War because they failed to recognize the issues with resupplying their troops in time. Once the issues were revealed, the British Empire was unable to correct the issues in time to be successful against the Americans.
Website: http://www.alu.army.mil/alog/issues/SepOct99/MS409.htm
The main idea about this subject is:

The powerful British Empire lack the necessary military logistics to successfully win the Revolutionary War against the weak American colonists.

List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
the lack of sufficient reserve supplies,
insufficient transportation,
the lack of a coherent strategy to maximize the potential support of British loyalists in the colonies**
**While this point does not fit into the “lack of supply” argument, it does validate an earlier argument I made within the essay.
(you can expand the list as necessary)
Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here:

Cautious generalship

Widespread corruption
In conclusion, Major John A. Tokar says: the British was defeated because of the lack of proper supplies about my topic.

Source 5

According to: Robert Middlekauff, At the time of the American Revolutionary War, the British Empire had incompetent generals which led to the empire losing many battles against the American colonists.(43-5)
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789. New York: Oxford UP, 2007. Print
The main idea about this subject is:
While the British Empire had great, experienced soldiers, its generals made bad decisions which led to the British losing the American colonies.

Many of the British generals were slow to follow orders given to them. (42)

Some generals had issues with resupplying their troops so they either disregarded orders or did not make orders their priority. (42-3)

Orders were sometimes wrong which led to British armies getting ambushed by the Americans (44-45)

Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here:
I found no contradiction to my thesis within this source.
In conclusion, Robert Middlekauff says: the British Empire suffered from having incompetent military leaders who were slow to follow orders about my topic.

Source 6

According to:
Theodore Draper the cause of the British defeat was due to incompetent leaders, lack of resupplies, isolation from their supporters, and inadequate military strategies. (66)
Draper, Theodore. A Struggle for Power: The American Revolution. New York: Times Books, 1996. Print.
The main idea about this subject is:
The British Empire, while it was a superpower, was led by leaders that were unable to properly lead their country and armies.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
1) This system made commerce the key to national greatness,(chapter14)
2) colonies were ideal, because they were understood to be appendages of the mother country. (chapter 14)
3) This colonial system implied that colonies were good to have only so long as they contributed to the mother country's interests, and that they were useless or even dangerous if they did not. (chapter 14)
Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here:

No facts within this source contradicted my thesis.

In conclusion, Theodore Draper says: that the leaders such as the Prime Minister and generals made bad decisions which led to the British Empire losing the American Revolutionary War about my topic.

Source 7

According to: the Gov.UK website, Prime Minister North had “pleaded with George III to allow him to resign, but he was not allowed this escape route until the war was over, allowing the blame to rest firmly with him.”
"History of Lord Frederick North." GOV.UK. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/frederick-north>.
The main idea about this subject is: the British Empire had incompetent political leaders. Prime Minister North knew he was not equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to help Britain through the American Revolutionary War. Prime Minister North attempted to turn in his resignation in order to allow someone who could better handle the British Empire during the time of war but it was refused by the king.
Best known as the man who lost Britain’s American colonies, Lord North served for a disastrous 12 years as prime minister.

Lord North made tactical errors that led to heavy British losses, including the defeats at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781.

Things went from bad to worse at home as well as abroad.
Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here:

No contradiction was found.

In conclusion, the poor leadership by political leaders such as Prime Minister North is part of the reason why the British lost the American Revolutionary War about my topic.

Source 8

According to: John W. Tebbel, Lord Germain was a poor choice for a strategic planner because he had a disagreeable personality. His incompetent leadership and enjoyment of arguing led to the alienation of many of Britain’s political and military leader. (38)
John W. Tebbel, Turning the World Upside Down: Inside the American Revolution. New York: Orion Books, 1993. Print. 38
The main idea about this subject is: The British leaders were unable to communicate properly with each other which led to confusion and an unorganized leadership.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
1) Due to the alienation created by Lord Germain, during the American Revolutionary War the British political and military departments failed to function properly with each other. (38)
Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here:

No there were not any facts within this document that contradicted my thesis.

In conclusion, John W. Tebbel says: that the British leaders were alienated from each other which made it difficult for the government and the army to properly do their job about my topic.

Source 9

According to: Lancaster, the British king suffered from mental illness which the cause of the disease remained unknown.” (Lancaster, Plumb, and Lancaster 24)
Lancaster, Bruce, J H. Plumb, and Bruce Lancaster. The American Revolution. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 2001. Print.
The main idea about this subject is:

The British Empire was led by leaders who were not experience enough or competent enough.

List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)

The King refused to allow Prime Minister North to resign (24)

King George III suffered from madness which many contributed to a blood disease (23)
The King sometimes gave confusing statements (24)
Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here:

There was no contradiction in this material.

In conclusion, Lancaster, Plumb, and Lancaster says: the British monarch suffered from an unknown disease which led him into madness and contributed to the incompetency of the British Empire’s political leaders about my topic.

Source 10

According to: Gordon S. Wood, General Clinton. General Clinton and his forces stayed in New York instead of helping to reinforce Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown. Cornwallis lost the Battle of Yorktown, and the American Revolutionary War had ended. Part of the defeat the British suffered was due to problems with resupplying its troops. (40-2)
Wood, Gordon S. The American Revolution: A History. New York: Modern Library, 2002. Print.
The main idea about this subject is:
The British general had poor military strategies and had issues resupply its troops. Both these problems complicated the British war effort in America.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)

The British isolated themselves from their loyalist supporters in America. 41

As a result, the British had issues with resupplying its troops during the American Revolutionary War. 41
Poor military strategies such as not being able to successfully copy the American’s attrition strategy led to the British losing the American Revolutionary War. 42
Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here:

There was no contradiction within this source.

In conclusion, Wood says: the use of conservative military strategies and isolating themselves from their supporters which hindered resupplying their troops in America gave the British Empire a disadvantage to the Americans about my topic.

Source 11

According to: John W. Shy, The British, while they fought using guerilla warfare sometimes, used the more traditional military strategy of meeting their opponents face to face on the battlefield.
John W. Shy, Toward Lexington: The Role of the British Army in the Coming of the American Revolution. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1965. Print. 49
The main idea about this subject is: The British military strategies was not as great as the Americans. Their tactics were predictable to the colonists. While the British were able to win many battles before the Battle of Saratoga, their lack of military strategies led to the British losing the American Revolutionary War.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
1) The British military strategy was to meet their opponents face to face on the battle field. 49
2) The use of conservative military strategy was one reason why the British Empire lost the American colonies. 49
Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here: None
In conclusion, John W. Shy says: the British were unprepared for the type of strategies the Americans used during the American Revolutionary War. The lack of military strategies and the inability to adapt to the American war strategy contributed to the Britain’s losing the American Revolutionary War about my topic.

Source 12

According to: Sara McNeil and Steven Mintz, “while the Americans engaged the British using tactics known as asymmetric warfare, the British was unable to copy successfully.”
Sara McNeil and Steven Mintz, "How were the colonies able to win independence?" UH - Digital History. N.p., 2013. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3220>.
The main idea about this subject is: The British lacked the necessary military strategies to counterattack the Americans. While the British were able to win battles, the Americans were wearing down the British army.
List the facts from the source that support this idea (and give page numbers)
1) British fought guerrilla warfare.
2) The British fought conservatively while the Americans used skills they learned from fighting the Native American Indians.
3) The Americans were able to wear down the British using their tactics whereas the British army lacked military strategies that could have helped them win the American Revolutionary War.
Are there any facts in this source which would contradict your thesis? If so, list those here:
In conclusion, Sara McNeil and Steven Mintz says: the Americans used tactics they had learned fighting the American Indians against the British army. For their part, the British lacked the necessary military strategies to counter the Americans. about my topic.

Step 4: Analysis:

My working thesis for this paper is now: (it’s possible that it might be the same as before)

Step 5 Outline

How the British lost the American Revolutionary War
INTRODUCTION
Attention Material
The British was a superpower who should have won the American Revolution
1. The British had control over the American colonies
2. Americans were not well trained as the British soldiers

B. The British underestimated the Americans

1. The Americans won the war
2. Britain lost control over its American colonies

Orienting Material

The cause of the British defeat was due to incompetent leaders, lack of resupplies, isolation from their supporters, and inadequate military strategies.Due to the taxes, the British lost the support of the loyalists living in the American colonies.

While the British army was well trained, it lacked the necessary supplies needed to conduct a serious war in America.

The turning point of the war was the Battle of Saratoga. The Americans won and proved to the world they were serious about gaining independence from Britain. After the Battle of Saratoga, France and Spain entered the American Revolutionary War.
(Transition: The Battle of Saratoga, which the British Empire had lost, led to the French and, later, the Spanish entering the war on the American side.)

BODY

I. The British had incompetent political leaders
A. The British king suffered from mental illness which the cause of the disease remained unknown.
B. Lord Germain loved to argue which alienated many departments within the British government.
(Transition: While the British people were being led by incompetent political leaders, their military leaders were not any better.)
II. At the time of the American Revolutionary War, the British Empire had incompetent generals which led to the empire losing many battles against the American colonists.

In 1776, General Howe failed to recognize and exploit the weak position of the American colonists at Long Island.

Furthermore, during a standoff at White Plains, General Howe failed to attack the weak forces of George Washington. Instead, George Washington and his forces were able to escape. Another act of incompetence came from General Clinton.
General Clinton and his forces stayed in New York instead of helping to reinforce Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown. Cornwallis lost the Battle of Yorktown, and the American Revolutionary War had ended.
(Transition: Part of the defeat the British suffered was due to problems with resupplying its troops.)
III. While the British started the American Revolutionary War with adequate supplies, according to Major John A. Tokar of the Army Logistics University, the British Empire had issues with resupplying its troops.
Many of the problems the British faced, such as “the lack of sufficient reserve supplies” had “contributed significantly to the British Army's defeat.” (Tokar)
The British relied on ships to carry the goods from Europe to the American colonies. Major Tokar stated "Only 13 ships eventually made it to Boston, and very little of their cargoes survived."
(Transition: The resupplying of the British army was further disrupted by unsupportive loyalists.)
IV. There were many loyalists that supported the British crown’s claim to the American colonies.
However, due to so many laws the British Parliament passed which led to heavy taxes, the British Empire had anger their supporters.

When the American Revolutionary War had begun, many loyalists refused to help the British army.

(Transition: Another reason the British suffered a defeat at the hands of the Americans was due to inadequate military strategies.)
V. British leaders had underestimated the abilities of the Americans and, in doing so; the British failed to adapt its military strategies.

While the Americans engaged the British using tactics known as asymmetric warfare, the British was unable to copy successfully.

(Transition: Despite the major setbacks the British Empire had encountered during the American Revolutionary War, the British army could have defeated the American colonists if it were not for other European countries joining the war.)

According to Jeff Wallenfeldt, “The war reached a turning point in autumn 1777 when the Americans won the Battle of Saratoga.

France and Spain enters the American Revolutionary War as allies of the Americans.
CONCLUSION
Summary
The British was a superpower who saw the need to burden its colonies with heavy taxes.
As a result, the colonies decided it was time to break away from the British Empire.
Many problems contributed to the British Empire losing the American Revolutionary War. Incompetent political and military leaders, inadequate military strategies, isolation of their supporters, and problems with resupplying there troops were just some of the issues the British Empire had.
The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point in the American Revolutionary War. By losing the war, the British had to fight not only the Americans but the French and Spanish forces as well.
Fighting against three countries prove to be difficult for the British. As the result, the British lost the American Revolutionary War.
Step 6: Bibliography

Works Cited

Draper, Theodore. A Struggle for Power: The American Revolution. New York: Times Books, 1996. Print.
"Fabian Strategy · George Washington's Mount Vernon." George Washington's Mount Vernon. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <http://www.mountvernon.org/research-collections/digital-encyclopedia/article/fabian-strategy/>.
"History of Lord Frederick North." GOV.UK. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/frederick-north>.
Lancaster, Bruce, J H. Plumb, and Bruce Lancaster. The American Revolution. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 2001. Print.
McNeil, Sara, and Steven Mintz. "How were the colonies able to win independence?" UH - Digital History. N.p., 2013. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. <http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3220>.
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789. New York: Oxford UP, 2007. Print.
Morgan, Edmund S, and Helen M. Morgan. The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution. Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture by the U of North Carolina P, 1995. Print.
Shy, John W. Toward Lexington: The Role of the British Army in the Coming of the American Revolution. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1965. Print.
Tebbel, John W. Turning the World Upside Down: Inside the American Revolution. New York: Orion Books, 1993. Print.
Tokar, Major John A. "Logistics and the British Defeat in the Revolutionary War." Army Logistics University. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2015. <http://www.alu.army.mil/alog/issues/SepOct99/MS409.htm>.
Wallenfeldt, Jeffrey H. The American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812: People, Politics, and Power. New York: Britannica Educational Pub. in association with Rosen Educational Services, 2010. Print.
Wood, Gordon S. The American Revolution: A History. New York: Modern Library, 2002. Print., Gordon S. The American Revolution: A History. New York: Modern Library, 2002. Print.

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WePapers. (2020, December, 28) However, The Turning Point Of The American Revolutionary War Was The Battle Of Saratoga. Research Paper. Retrieved October 16, 2021, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/however-the-turning-point-of-the-american-revolutionary-war-was-the-battle-of-saratoga-research-paper/
"However, The Turning Point Of The American Revolutionary War Was The Battle Of Saratoga. Research Paper." WePapers, 28 Dec. 2020, https://www.wepapers.com/samples/however-the-turning-point-of-the-american-revolutionary-war-was-the-battle-of-saratoga-research-paper/. Accessed 16 October 2021.
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