Literacy Essay Essay
Children acquire and use reading strategies in different instructional settings. Educators know that school must improve the achievement of the low-income households. Many researchers present erroneous work on the performance of low and middle-income families. According to Nicholas et al. (2007), some of the factors that contribute to school failure include teacher expectations, instructions, curricula, and the variations in school structure. Decades of research, to bring reform to the low-income children, facilitate transformation of the young children development. The construction of knowledge founded on the student cognitive structures helps them to interpret new information. The constructivist view of learners places their role as active participants. Nicholas et al. (2007) believe that a teacher expectations and the classroom affect the learning process. The instruction that children receive, concerns the use of their phonological knowledge. Griffith (2008) finds that whole language classroom in comparison to skill-based make use of their knowledge to a wide extent.
Promoting Language and Literacy in Young Dual Language Learners
According to Griffith (2008), high-quality high education will foster children success in school. The Dual Language Learners (DLLs) promote learning in early education. The federal government and individual states makes significant investments at the beginning of childhood programs. It happens as most children are from non-English speaking communities. An effective instructional strategy will promote language and literacy development on young DLLs, offer policy recommendations, and identify areas that need extensive research. Griffith (2008) state that DLL children from poor households lag behind wealthy families as they enter pre-school even after attending early childhood programs. The need for high-quality education focuses on reducing the school readiness gap. Such a program uses research-based instructional practices to address DLLs needs, promote school readiness. The studies with oral language will promote literacy development to demonstrate their importance in reading and academic success. Pre-school children can benefit from reading comprehension for their academic success. Children can gain an understanding quickly once they decode the unfamiliar words. Skilled decoding needs phonemic awareness, graphemes, and knowledge of the letters. Active oral language competence will foster early decoding skills to enable a child to read comprehension. The size of a child’s vocabulary allows it to increase their understanding, so it is good when the child has a profound knowledge of words. The approach of the bilingual children consists of teaching word meaning in an explicit way with diverse opportunities to use the phrase. The research on monolingual English speakers illustrates that pre-school vocabulary predicts between fourth-grade and seventh-grade. The development of language and literacy entails integration of component skills such as vocabulary knowledge, grammatical knowledge, and socio-cultural variables. The multilingual learners can develop second language literacy as they acquire second language oral proficiency. The instructional practices that can promote language and literacy in young DLLs focus on K-12 instruction since it has vital implication for the preschool education. Some of the instructional practices recommendations include the use of primary language to teach reading skills, high-quality early childhood practices to support equal level of academic success, and instructional enhancements to support DLLs and literacy development.
Literacy Strategy and Instructional Design Checklist
Nicholas et al. (2007) explores the effect of professional development on the middle school teachers to understand and apply literacy strategies that support and enhance instruction across the curriculum. The author investigates the extent of reading and writing strategies together with sound instructional design implemented by middle school teachers on the plan and design checklist. The outcome of the result suggests that the teachers use a wide variety of instructional design and strategies in their entire teaching practice. Nicholas et al. (2007) reports a review of literacy practices that include consultations with lead researchers and practitioners in practice and policy. Some of the policies include Reading Excellence Act, National Reading First Initiative and Reading First Initiative that provide a firm foundation in the developmental aspects of reading. The content text associated with elementary and adolescent learners in the effort of reducing the reading curriculum. Literacy research in the middle grades focuses on professional development initiative with middle school teachers. Professional development at the school level has an impact on teaching practice as well as student learning. Recent research finds that the teacher as a major contributing factor in practical instruction since a teacher professionalism will affect the student learning outcomes. Teachers make daily decisions as they plan the student learning outcomes, meet children learning needs, and accommodate a broad instruction preference. Teachers respond to student learning need using different teaching procedures. Teachers make a purposeful decision concerning the classroom practices, as they know the impact of instructional design and instructional strategy selection on the learning of individual students. Successful instruction does not depend on a single direction or a combined method to meet the learning needs of children instead it depends on the teacher, as the primary variable, to determine the efficacy of the education. An effective teacher incorporates theory into practice to reflect performance, motivation, and the student learning ability. Effective teachers demonstrate to students how to apply different instruction strategies prior and after reading. Learning and understanding need both prior and strategic knowledge. Students, which struggle during learning, are due to them being unable to draw upon the comprehensive texts. Some of the students overly concentrate on decoding instead of monitoring the strategies.
Teaching Persuasive texts hedging and intensification
An ability to construct a convincing material for young learners can improve their literacy skill since most of them encounter difficulties in writing arguments. The middle school teachers face some pedagogical challenges in the attempt to write effusively. Freppon & Mcintyre (1999) offers information on the evaluative features of persuasive texts to enhance writing of middle school students. Persuasive text refers to exposition production that identifies a thesis of an argument. It ranges from web pages, essays, testimonials, and letters. The use of genuine models of persuasive texts provides children with diverse exemplars to warrant authority. The expositions of the English-speaking communities proliferate as children are formally introduced to the learning process all the way to adulthood. Persuasion is a genre in the education system that is imperative to reading and writing in the school and life afterwards. Different researchers contend that the ability to compose high-quality arguments is a critical skill that is paramount to academic success. Most of the children that begin to write and comprehend the nuances of persuasive texts tend to concentrate only on modality and intensifies while they do not use hedging to illustrate humility in the course of an argument. It is possible for the teachers to improve the students’ ability to write persuasive texts using instruction. Teachers have a mandate to strengthen the student knowledge of the influential books and the evaluation language. The Australian Curriculum ensures that children learn language for interaction during their foundation year. Seven-year-olds learn the essential features of persuasive texts to enable them understand how to vary the evaluative language. In their middle years, children learn how to make bare assertions and take different viewpoints. In summary, the curriculum requires the students to learn how to position themselves in a successful way to align with the readers and build a knowledge base concerning words of evaluation. Persuasive writing will help address students writing skills that have supportive claims, relevant evidence, and clear reasons. In view of the content of language appraisal, teachers should bear in mind that the use of assessment links to linguistic and cultural understanding of the weight of the words.
Freppon, P., & McIntyre, E. (1999). A Comparison of Young Children Learning to Read in Different Instructional Settings. Journal Of Educational Research, 92(4), 206-218.
Griffith, P. L. (2008). Literacy for Young Children : A Guide for Early Childhood Educators. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin.
Nichols, W. D., Young, C. A., & Rickelman, R. J. (2007). Improving Middle School Professional Development by Examining Middle School Teachers' Application of Literacy Strategies and Instructional Design. Reading Psychology, 28(1), 97-130.