Metacognition, Self-Regulated Learning, And Study Strategies Book Review Examples
Type of paper: Book Review
Topic: Learning, Strategy, Education, Study, Skills, Motivation, Information, Development
Metacognition is the well thought out and conscious control of mental activities (Brown, 1980; Matlin, 2009). Metacognition ensures that activities are done successful through incorporation of knowledge and monitoring these activities. During the ages of 5-7 one starts to develop metacognition and throughout schooling (Flavell et al., 1995; Flavell, 1985). Metacognition assist people to know what knowledge is required for different situation. It helps one to interrelate information.
Metacognitive skills play an important role in cognitive activities. Metacognition has two related sets of skills. One, an individual must know the skills, strategies and resources required for a given activity. Two, an individual must know how and when to use these skills, strategies and resources to ensure that a given activity is done successful .Metacognitive skills are assimilated slowly in childhood and deeply in adulthood.
Metacognition is influenced by variables such as learners, tasks and strategies (Flavell &Wellman, 1977; Duell, 1986). The learner’s variable encompasses the level of development of the learner and the ability to monitor performance on a memory activity. The task variable encompasses knowing the difficulty in the learning different types of information and being able to recall the different forms of information. The strategy variable encompasses generating an approach that the learner uses to store and retrieve information such as rehearsal and elaboration. These three variables interact during metacognitive activities. The learners look at the information to be learnt (task), the strategies to be used and their skills at using these strategies to complete a task successful. Metacognitive awareness is essential for effective self-regulated learning (Dinsmore, Alexander & Loughlin, 2008).
Self-regulated learning is learning that involves planning, monitoring and evaluating one’s progress against a standard. Self-regulated learning is guided by metacognition, study strategies and learning motivation. Self-regulated learning assists learners to know their academic strengths and weaknesses and the strategies they can apply to tackle challenging tasks. Learners attribute their failures or successes to factors within their control. Self-regulated learning occurs within an environment that the learner can control through directing and regulating their own actions. Self- regulated learning is used in the initial phase of learning, troubleshooting phase and the phase where learners are teaching others (Palincsar & Brown, 1984).
There are four phases of self-regulated learning. Firstly, the task perception phase, involves learners gathering information about the task and personalizing it. Secondly, the goal setting phase, involves planning how to accomplish the task depending on how the learners perceive the task. Thirdly, the enacting phase, involves learners endorsing the plan they have developed using study strategies. Fourthly, the adaptation phase, involves learners evaluating their performance to determine whether they can modify their strategies to yield even greater success (Winne & Hadwin 2008).
The three characteristics of self-regulated learning include self-observation (monitoring), self-judgment (evaluation) and self-reactions (reactions to outcomes) (Pajares, 2008). Self-regulated learning enables learners to store information in their long term memory where it can be recalled and used for a given task. Motivation and control play significant roles in self-regulated learning. Motivation propels learners when the encounter difficulties while control assists learners not to go off course and achieve their goals (Palincsar & Brown, 1984).
Study strategies are the different approaches used for learning. Study strategies are specific approaches to a task or a field of study. They involve the process of organizing, capturing, retaining and evaluating information.
Study strategies include rehearsals, thinking aloud, mnemonics, acronyms, note taking, reading and listening, questioning, flashcards and index cards training, keywords or summary method, diagrams and reciprocal teaching. There are other aspects, not necessarily study strategies, which play a major role in learning such as time management, improved diet and sleep, avoiding procrastination and motivational techniques. Study strategies are student centered and inquiry based therefore, help learners to become self-regulated learners. Learners need to know and utilize study strategies to achieve academic success. Study strategies are necessary and are effective ways of overcoming challenges during learning.
Learners need to be taught the what, when, where and why components of learning. Learners need to monitor their understanding of the main ideas and what a main idea is and how to obtain one. Learners should be given an opportunity to employ metacognitive skills in their self-regulated learning time while utilizing learnt study strategies. Metacognitive skills are important in self-regulated learning since they assist in understanding and monitoring reading purposes and study strategies. Learners perceive a task, set goals, enact a plan and evaluate and make corrections to improve performance using metacognition. Learners use the study strategies to accomplish a goal. When metacognition, self-regulated learning and study strategies are highly developed they can occur automatically.
Brown, A. (1980). Metacognitive development and reading. In R. J. Spiro, B. Bruce &W. Brewer (Eds). Theoretical issues in reading comprehension (pp. 453-481). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Dinsmore, D., Alexander, P. & Loughlin, S. (2008). Focusing the conceptual lens on metacognition, self-regulation, and self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 20, 391–409. chapter 9
Duell, O. (1986). Metacognitive skills. In G. D. Phye & T. Andre (Eds.), Cognitive classroom learning: Understanding, thinking, and problem solving (pp. 205–242). Orlando: Academic Press.
Flavell, J. & Wellman, H. (1977). Metamemory. In R. B. Kail, Jr., & J. W. Hagen (Eds.), Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition (pp. 3–33). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Flavell, J. (1985). Cognitive development (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Flavell, J., Green, F. & Flavell, E. (1995). Young children’s knowledge about thinking. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 60(1) (Serial No. 243).
Matlin, M. W. (2009). Cognition (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Pajares, F. (2008). Motivational Role of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Self-Regulated Learning. In Schunk, D.H., & Zimmerman, B. Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory, Research, and Application (pp. 111–139). New York, NY: Routledge.
Palincsar, A. & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocial teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension monitoring activities. Cognitive and Instuction 1(2), pp. 117–175
Winne, P. & Hadwin, A. (2008). The Weave of Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning. In Schunk, D. & Zimmerman, B. Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning: Theory, Research, and Application (pp. 297–314). New York, NY: Routledge.