Sample Essay On Ask A Number Of People How They Would Respond To A Speaker With Incongruent Non-Verbal And Verbal Cues.

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Study, Psychology, Education, Brain, Nature, Science, Information, Nurture

Pages: 1

Words: 275

Published: 2020/11/13

PSYC 101 Exam 1

CIRCLE OR HIGHLIGHT the correct answer for the following questions; then after each, you will be asked to provide a rationale for your answer, an explanation, or example. DO NOT LEAVE ANY BLANK LINE ON THE TEST UNANSWERED.
1. A collection of related ideas and observations that describe, explain, and predict behavior and mental processes is called a
a. theory. c. proposal.
b. guess. d. hypothesis.
Please provide an example of this concept by coming up with an idea for your own scientific, psychological study. Just make one up! Think of a research idea that interests you and you have questions about. In one paragraph, tell me what your study would be and where this concept would fall within your study:
I would like to prove that people become uncomfortable in social interactions when nonverbal cues do not match up with what is being said, for example saying you are angry while smiling widely from ear to ear, will cause the person listening to have elevated anxiety, become confused or wish to remove himself from the conversation.
________________________________________________________________________
2. The final step in the scientific method is to
a. draw conclusions. c. conduct a research review.
b. collect and analyze data. d. report results.
Please provide an example of this step in the scientific method by using your own scientific, psychological study you came up with in question #1. In one paragraph, tell me where and how this concept would fall within your study:
After observing a select number of incongruent interactions and recording what happened to the unsuspecting listener, I would report the reactions that were observed and the frequency with which a typical reaction occurred. For example, 9 times out of 20 the listener walked away frowning when the speaker alleged they were angry but were smiling like a clown.
________________________________________________________________________
In questions 3 through 7, MATCH each of the following research methods (a-e) with the statement which best describes it. Write the concept in the space next to the statement:
a. naturalistic observation d. case study
b. laboratory observation e. survey
c. correlational study
3. This method allows researchers to gather self-report data from a representative sample of the population. ________________E______________
Please provide an example of this method in the scientific, psychological study you came up with in question 1. If you were to conduct your study using this method, how would you go about doing so? In one paragraph, tell me how you would utilize this method:

________________________________________________________________________
4. This method involves determining the strength of relationship between two variables, though cause and effect cannot be determined. ____C_____________________________
Please provide an example of this method in your own scientific, psychological study. In one paragraph, what variable you might utilize to determine strength of relationships:

Facial expressions

________________________________________________________________________
5. This method allows researchers to observe behaviors while maintaining control of the environment. _____________B___________________
Please provide an example of this method in the scientific, psychological study you came up with in question 1. If you were to conduct your study using this method, how would you go about doing so? In one paragraph, tell me how you would utilize this method:
Prevent people from leaving the room before you want the interaction to be over, thereby increasing the potential level of discomfort.
________________________________________________________________________
6. This method involves collecting extensive data on one person of interest. ____D______________
Please provide an example of this method in the scientific, psychological study you came up with in question 1. If you were to conduct your study using this method, how would you go about doing so? In one paragraph, tell me how you would utilize this method and what one person you might collect data on:

Try a variety of interactions on the same subject and observe his responses.

________________________________________________________________________
7. This method allows researchers to observe behaviors that are more natural or spontaneous.
_______________A______________
Please provide an example of this method in the scientific, psychological study you came up with in question 1. If you were to conduct your study using this method, how would you go about doing so? In one paragraph, tell me how you would utilize this method and what natural or spontaneous behaviors you would watch for:
This method could best be used by not informing the subject in advance that he was being observed as part of an experiment. Like candid camera, if you will, getting the most natural response because they don’t know it’s a set up.
________________________________________________________________________
MATCH each of the following perspectives with the statement below which best describes it. Write it in the space below the statement. Then there is a paragraph to complete at the end of #11. Please do not leave it blank.
a. Humanistic b. Psychoanalytic c. Cognitive d. Behaviorism
8. This perspective focused on mental processes, such as decision-making and memory.
_____________________C________________
9. This perspective believes people are basically “good” and driven to reach their full potential.
____________________A_________________
10. Freud focused on the unconscious mind and on early childhood experiences.
______________________B_______________
11. Researchers like Watson and Skinner believed psychologists should focus on observable, measureable behaviors.
____________________D_________________
In one robust paragraph, using all four of the perspectives above, describe a situation for each one in which each of these schools of thought might be necessary and appropriate over the others.
____________________________________________________________________________________
12. The Central Nervous System (CNS) in humans is comprised of two structures:
the brain and peripheral nerves
the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
the autonomic and peripheral nerves
spinal cord and peripheral nerves
the brain and spinal cord

Describe in your own words (from your own schemata), the function of each of these structures:

The brain serves as the body’s main computer, the central processing center into which all information is received and all outgoing messages to body originate. The spinal cord is the pathway by which all the signals travel.
13. _______________ are branch-shaped structures on a neuron that receive incoming signals from other neurons.

Axons c. Glial cells

Dendrites d. Receptors
The signals originated from the nerves in the body, such as the fingers. They are headed to the brain in order to communicate what is happening to the body and have the brain decide how to act in response.
____________________________________________________________________________________
MATCH each of the following NEUROTRANSMITTERS with the statement which best describes it. Place the name of the neurotransmitter in the blank next to the statement. Then there is a paragraph after #18 to complete. PLEASE DO NOT LEAVE IT BLANK:

Serotonin c. GABA

Dopamine d. Norepinephrine
e. Acetylcholine
14. it is involved in memory and movement; its deficiency is linked to Alzheimer’s disease
_____________________E__________________
15. an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in sleep regulation and mood; its deficiency has been linked to depression, suicide, and impulsive violence
_____________________A__________________
16. it inhibits involuntary muscle movements and has been linked to both Parkinson’s disease and

Schizophrenia

____________________B___________________
17. it activates the sympathetic nervous system and influences arousal; its involved in the brain’s reward centers and may be depleted by repeated cocaine usage
____________________D___________________
18. an inhibitory neurotransmitter that reduces anxiety and seizure disorders
___________________C____________________
In one robust paragraph, utilizing all five of these neurotransmitters, describe what stimulus or stressor might illicit the production of each of these neurotransmitters.
Drugs of abuse, most notably cocaine, heroin, nicotine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, are the most stressful stimulus I can think of that effect the production of all the essential neurotransmitters across the board. The amygdala is overstimulated, the release and reuptake of the neurotransmitters are all effected and essentially the brain becomes subjected to a chemical imbalance. Furthermore, the receptors for the naturally occurring chemicals become overloaded by the introduction of the drugs which mimic the natural euphoria of serotonin and dopamine, so that the brain’s natural production of these turns off. When the effects of the drug have passed, and the body is no longer releasing them on its own, the phenomenon of craving and withdrawal begins, setting off the cycle of abuse.
WE DID NOT HAVE TIME IN CLASS TO COVER THE FOLOWING PARTS OF THE BRAIN. USING YOUR TEXTBOOK OR THE INTERNET, PLEASE DESCRIBE THEIR FUNCTION ON THE LINE PROVIDED, AND IN YOUR OWN WORDS (USING YOUR OWN SCHEMATA) ANSWER THE QUESTION NEXT TO EACH BRAIN PART:
19. In the brain stem, what are the functions of the MEDULLA and RETICULAR FORMATION?
The medulla is responsible for automatic functions such as breathing, digestion, heartbeat, blood vessel function and swallowing. The reticular formation is involved in many of the essential functions of the body, such as the ability to obtain recuperative sleep, sexual arousal, and the ability to focus on tasks without being easily distracted.
If we were to place an electrode on the medulla and reticular formation of a rat and provide him or her an electric shock to this area, what might the rat experience?

The rat might experience a heart attack, difficulty sleeping or breathing, incontinence or confusion.

20. What is the CEREBELLUM?
The cerebellum is part of the brain that plays an important role in motor control. It may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language, and in regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. The cerebellum does not initiate movement, but it contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing. It receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, and integrates these inputs to fine tune motor activity.
If a human were in a car accident, and received an injury to the cerebellum, what might happen to its functioning?

The person would likely experience coordination problems, trouble with balance, strange movements, awkward gait, and muscular weakness.

21. A person with a tumor on the HYPOTHALAMUS, might experience what symptoms?

They may experience vision loss, euphoria, seizures, headaches.

22. Choose one of the INFANT REFLEXES outlined in Ch. 3. In one paragraph, describe for me what is occurring in the reflex you chose. Why is a newborn baby equipped with this reflex? How long does it last? Draw me a mental picture of what the baby exhibits:
Rooting reflex is there to make sure the baby can find food when it is hungry, and the parent can see and respond to this.
23. Nature Versus Nurture is another topic we did not have time to discuss in class. I’d like you to analyze the following three studies and tell me what the data says about NATURE VS. NURTURE. Simply GOOGLE the following three cases, then answer the questions below them:
A Twin Study of Humour, L. Cherkas, F. Hochberg, A.J. MacGregor, H. Sneider, and T.D. Spector (Twin Research, March 3, 2000: 17-22). Abstract: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbinpost/Entrez/query?db=m&form=6&uid=10808236&dopt=r

Hypothesis: A person’s humor appreciation is influenced by genetic factors, shared environment or unique environment.

Sample size: 127 pairs of twins
Summary of findings: Shared environment rather than genetic factors are the greater influence of humor.
What do you think the data say about nature versus nurture? Nurture is a stronger variable when it comes to humor.

Compare the data for identical and fraternal twins.

II. Genetic Correlates of Musical Pitch Recognition in Humans, D. Drayna, A. Manichaikul, M. de Lange, H. Sneider, T.D. Spector (Science, 2001: 1969-1972).
Listed on the Twin Research Center's Web site: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,2-96428,00.html

Hypothesis: Genetic or environmental variables have a greater effect on appreciation of music.

Sample size: 136 identical twin pairs and 148 fraternal twin pairs.
Summary of findings: Differences were attributed mainly to genetics rather than environment in this study.
What do you think the data say about nature versus nurture? Nature has the greater influence in this case.
Compare the data for identical and fraternal twins.
III. Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart, Thomas Bouchard Jr., David Lykken, Matthew McGue, Nancy Segal, Auke Tellegen (Science, October 12, 1990, 223-226 Condensed version: http://www.mugu.com/cgibin/Upstream/Issues/psychology/IQ/bouchard-twins.html

Hypothesis: IQ and psychological differences are largely inherited.

Sample size: Over 100 sets of twins or triplets.
Summary of findings: Environment has much less influence than genetics.
What do you think the data say about nature versus nurture? In the case of intelligence and mental health, genes play a much larger role than environment.

Compare the data for identical and fraternal twins.

What conclusions do you draw from these studies about nature versus nurture?
The nature verses nurture question cannot be simply summed up by saying that one has greater effect than the other across the board. In light of these findings, I conclude that sometimes its nature and sometimes its nurture, depends entirely on what trait you are considering.

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WePapers. (2020, November, 13) Sample Essay On Ask A Number Of People How They Would Respond To A Speaker With Incongruent Non-Verbal And Verbal Cues.. Retrieved January 28, 2023, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/sample-essay-on-ask-a-number-of-people-how-they-would-respond-to-a-speaker-with-incongruent-non-verbal-and-verbal-cues/
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Sample Essay On Ask A Number Of People How They Would Respond To A Speaker With Incongruent Non-Verbal And Verbal Cues.. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/sample-essay-on-ask-a-number-of-people-how-they-would-respond-to-a-speaker-with-incongruent-non-verbal-and-verbal-cues/. Published Nov 13, 2020. Accessed January 28, 2023.
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