Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Diabetes, Body, Health, Medicine, Diet, Glucose, Sugar, People

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2021/01/01

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Controlling Diabetes

Introduction
Diabetes is a group of diseases caused by faulty metabolism that results in ‘hyperglycemia’, which is an excess of glucose in the bloodstream (American Diabetes Association). The faulty metabolism is a manifestation of an inefficient manner of digestion of food for energy. The digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is a form of sugar. Glucose enters the bloodstream on digestion of food. Using the hormone insulin, the cells of the body absorb glucose and use it for energy. Diabetes is a condition when the body is not able to produce insulin or is not able to use insulin effectively (NIDDK).
Insulin in the body is made in the pancreas, which is an organ behind the stomach. The pancreas consists of clusters of cells called ‘islets’. These islets produce insulin and release it to the bloodstream. If the pancreas does not produce adequate amounts of insulin, or if the body does not efficiently use the insulin, the amount of glucose in the bloodstream increases, leading to the condition of diabetes and prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition when the glucose levels in the blood are high, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Diabetes results in the body feeling sluggish and devoid of energy despite high glucose levels (NIDDK).
Over a period of time, the excess glucose levels in the body damage nerve and blood vessels, leading to multiple complications such as heart disease, blindness, kidney disease and even amputations. Diabetes may also cause the body to be susceptible to other diseases, including rapid ageing and depression. Genetics and environmental factors play a combined role in causing diabetes in most cases (NIDDK).

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is caused by reduced insulin levels in the bloodstream as a result of the destruction of insulin producing cells in the pancreas. The insulin producing cells in the pancreas get destroyed as a result of an improper reaction of the body’s immune system. Normally, the immune system is designed to protect the body from infection and disease. However, in autoimmune diseases, the immune system attacks the healthy cells of the body. Type 1 diabetes occurs in children and young adults. A form of Type 1 diabetes, ‘latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)’ occurs after the age of 30 (NIDDK).
Heredity is an important factor in the development of type 1 diabetes. The genetic information passed on from one generation to another develops faulty instructions. Certain gene variants produce ‘human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) on white blood cells, which are linked to the development of type 1 diabetes. The white blood cells attack the insulin producing cells to cause diabetes (NIDDK).
Genetic testing is an important method to detect Type 1 diabetes. Often, type 1 diabetes is not diagnosed till most insulin producing cells in the body have been destroyed. In such cases, people require daily insulin treatments to survive (NIDDK).
Type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the more common form of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of factors, the most important of which is insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a state where the body’s muscles, fat and liver cells do not use the insulin effectively. Because of insulin resistance, the body requires more insulin to produce energy. When the body is not able to produce this increased amount of insulin, type 2 diabetes manifests itself. Type 2 diabetes is often caused in middle aged and obese people. The disease, once rare in young people, is becoming more prevalent amongst the youth due to changes in lifestyle. Apart from lifestyle, genetics has a role in the predilection people may have to developing type 2 diabetes.
Controlling Diabetes
While people would have little control over genetic factors causing diabetes, there is substantial option to reduce the risk of diabetes arising out of faulty lifestyle, improper diet and lack of exercise. Diet composition, amount, distribution and time of food intake are important factors in diet therapy. The diet should be high in complex carbohydrates, low in simple carbohydrates, low in fats and monosaturated fatty acids. High fiber diets are beneficial for the treatment of diabetes, with soluble fibers being more effective than insoluble fibers. Chromium is important in initiating carbohydrate metabolism required for insulin production (Khan and Safdar).
Physical inactivity and obesity have a strong correlation to diabetes. If people lead sedentary lives, there is an imbalance between the calorific intake and physical activity. This leads to obesity and insulin resistance, common to type 2 diabetes. The risk for diabetes gets accentuated with people who are genetically susceptible to diabetes. Therefore, it is important to remain physically active. Those in prediabetic states must reduce weight through regular physical activity and a diet low in fat and calories.
Apart from lifestyle choices, drug therapy is the last option for diabetics. Drug therapy involves the use of hypoglycemic medicines and insulin to increase the amount of insulin in the bloodstream. Drug therapy is required regularly as the body is inefficient in insulin production and usage (Khan and Safdar). Drug therapy cannot cure the body of diabetes, and is only a means to keep the body alive.

Conclusion

Diabetes is a condition wherein the body does not produce adequate insulin, or uses insulin inefficiently. Type 1 diabetes occurs early in life and is chiefly genetic. Type 2 diabetes is mainly caused in middle age due to sedentary lifestyles, improper diets and lack of exercise. Diabetes causes debilitating diseases such as heart attack, blindness and also causes the body to be susceptible to other diseases. It is essential to retain an active and healthy lifestyle with proper diet to avoid diabetes later in life.

Works Cited

American Diabetes Association. “Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus.” Diabetes Care, Vol. 36, Supplement 1: 61-74. Care.DiabetesJournals.org. n.d. Web. March 26, 2015.
Khan, Alam, and Safdar, Mahpara. “Role of Diet, Nutrients, Spices and Natural Products in Diabetes Mellitus.” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2/1: 1-12. 2003. Web. March 26, 2015.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). “Causes of Diabetes.” Diabetes.NIDDK.NIH.gov. n.d. Web. March 26, 2015.

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WePapers. (2021, January, 01) Medicine Research Paper Sample. Retrieved September 16, 2021, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/medicine-research-paper-sample/
"Medicine Research Paper Sample." WePapers, 01 Jan. 2021, https://www.wepapers.com/samples/medicine-research-paper-sample/. Accessed 16 September 2021.
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WePapers. Medicine Research Paper Sample. [Internet]. January 2021. [Accessed September 16, 2021]. Available from: https://www.wepapers.com/samples/medicine-research-paper-sample/
"Medicine Research Paper Sample." WePapers, Jan 01, 2021. Accessed September 16, 2021. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/medicine-research-paper-sample/
WePapers. 2021. "Medicine Research Paper Sample." Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. Retrieved September 16, 2021. (https://www.wepapers.com/samples/medicine-research-paper-sample/).
"Medicine Research Paper Sample," Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com, 01-Jan-2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.wepapers.com/samples/medicine-research-paper-sample/. [Accessed: 16-Sep-2021].
Medicine Research Paper Sample. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/medicine-research-paper-sample/. Published Jan 01, 2021. Accessed September 16, 2021.
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